Crucial Bibliography:


J.W. Brown,  The Rise  of Biblical Criticism in America 1800-1870: : , The New England Scholars (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1969); (see my Development of Science in America), F.W. Farrar, History of Interpretation (1886), often reprinted; R.M. Grant, The Bible in the Church (Mac. P. 6); B. Smalley, The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1941); R. Simon, Histoire Critique du Vieux Testament (1678), reprinted;  W.S. Kuemmel, Das Neue Testament: Geschichte Der Erforschung Seiner Probleme (Muenchen: Freiburg, 1959); Hans-Guaiacum Kraus, Geschichte Der Historisch--Critischen Erforschung Der Alten Testaments (Neukrichen Kreis Maers, 1956); F.H. Foster, A Genetic History of the New England Theology (University of Chicago Press, 1907), reprinted; W.B. Glover, Evangelical Non-Conformists and Higher Criticism in the 19th Century (London, 1954); Jurgen Herbst, The German Historical School in American Scholarship (Ithaca: Cornell, 1965); D.D. Williams, The Andover Liberals (NY: King's Crown Press, 1941); C. Wright, The Beginning of Unitarianism in America (Boston: Starr King Press, 1955); J. Quincy, The History of Harvard University, 2 vols. (Boston: Crosby, Nichols, Lee and Col, 1860); B.H. Williams, (ed.), The Harvard Divinity School (Boston: Beacon, 1954); L. Woods, History of Andover Theological Seminary (Boston: Osgood, 1885); S.E. Morison, Three Centuries of Harvard (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1936).


Crucial Topics: 


1.  INTELLECTUAL and Cultural Revolutions.

2.  IMPACT of Darwinian Revolution on the study of Scripture.

3.  HEGEL'S Historical Consciousness and its resultant relativization of all thought.

4.  THE HISTORICAL CRITICAL REVOLUTION and Blessing's "Roughly Ditch."

5.  SHIFT from bibliocentrism is a result of the above revolution.

6.  CIRCLE OF SCHOLARS at Harvard.

7.  CIRCLE OF SCHOLARS at Andover.

8.  EDWARD ROBINSON was the one scholar of international fame: careful scholars such as Gibbs and Noyes might have flourished in a more scholarly environment; controversalists such as Parker, Norton, Stuart might have become fruitful investigators had not their energies been so widely diffused.  (Note Stators influence on Alexander Campbell, especially in hermeneutics.)  


Christianity is a historical religion.  The Bible is a historical book.  Jesus Christ is a historical person.  As we approach the third Millennium, many have rejected Scriptures as normative source of belief and Christian discipleship.  Historically, the normative traditions of the Scripture have been cross-culturally communicated in the cultural context of changing presuppositions and world view revolutions (see my essays, Contextualization in Context; Critique of Structuralism; hermeneutical critiques of Blessing's "Roughly Ditch" and BurgeonsGoofier Brooke; Theological


James D. Strauss