Major World Religion’s Charts

 

Western: Judaism, Islam, and Christianity

Eastern: Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism

 

2003

 

 

Rick Allbee

Heartland Community College

 

(The Following charts are posted on this web site:

http://www.worldvieweyes.org/resource-rv.html,

 with Rick Allbee’s permission)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

JUDAISM 

ISLAM

CHRISTIANITY

God/Prime Reality

 

God: Transcendent Creator, Sovereign, Almighty, Yahweh, One

 

Allah: Monotheism; All Powerful, All Knowing, Merciful, Compassionate

 

Tawhid (God’s absolute unity; and Allah’s  sovereignty over the universe) 

 99 Beautiful Names; Creator; Sovereign Judge

 

Fullness of the Godhead: God the Father Creator, Christ the Son (Creator, Lord, Redeemer), and The Holy Spirit

 

Trinity

Nature of World

And Nature of History

 

 

 

Nature of Knowledge

Real Created World: Structured, Dynamic

 

Linear History

God is sovereign over the world, and immanent in Israel’s history

 

Truth: truth integrated with concrete life

Real Created World

Linear history

Prophets bring new dispensations

Angels involved in history

Knowledge: knowledge of Allah (in religious commitment and the knowledge of his will) is most important.  Also, true knowledge is the true nature of reality

Real Created World: Structured, Dynamic

Fallen

Linear History

God is sovereign over and immanent in  history; Redemptive in history through

Christ the Promised One

Faith and Reason (Faith seeks reason)

Truth:Integrity between belief & behavior

Nature of Humanity

 

Created in God’s image: Self-Transcendent, Creative,

Biological/Psycho/Social/Spiritual Unity, Intellectual moral being

Exercises limited sovereignty via the Creation Mandate

 

Created in God’s image

Sovereign next to God

 

Created in God’s image: Self-Transcendent, Creative,

Tripartite (body, soul, spirit),

Intellectual moral being,

Exercises limited sovereignty via the Creation Mandate,

Fallen and in need of redemption

Goal: Salvation or

Liberation

 

“Salvation” from God’s judgment via obedience to the law

 

Human society advanced and healed via following God’s natural law (“Torah”)

 

Salvation via deeds, and Allah’s mercy

 

Day of Judgment

 

Heaven/Hell

 

 

 

Salvation from sin and its ultimate consequence (death) via Christ

 

Reconciliation to God  

 

Summing up all things in Christ

Judgment Heaven/Hell

Ethics

 

Torah

Ten Commandments (apodictic law)

613 commandments (casuistic law)

Prophetic Ethics: Justice, mercy, etc

Hagadah

Wisdom

Submission to Allah

Practice the Five Pillars of Islam

Follow the example of Muhammed (Sunnah)

Live all of Life according to Islamic Law (Shariah); 5 categories of behavior: required, recommended, permitted, discouraged, prohibited)

Jihad (“Greater” and “lesser”)

Dietary Rules: Surah 5:3 (Prohibited foods- swine, improperly killed food); unblessed food  

 

Faith in God and Christ

Metanoia—Repentance

Love of God and Love of Neighbor

Discipleship

Imitatio Christi

Be transformed into His (Christ’s) image

Life in and in accordance with the Holy Spirit

 

 

JUDAISM

ISLAM

CHRISTIANITY

Country of Origin and Practice

 

Israel

 

Eastern Europe

Germany

 

America

 

Arabia

 

Northern Africa

 

The Near East

Baltic Basin

Mediterranean

 

Israel

 

The Nations: Western Civilization,

Global (Americas, Africa, Europe); less so in the Muslim countries and the Far East

Sacred Texts

 

 

Hebrew Bible:

-Torah

-Prophets

-Writings

Rabbinic Writings : Mishnah, Talmuds, Midrashim, Tosefta, Halakah and Hagadah

 

 

Koran (Supreme Revelatory Authority)

Hadith—Narrative Traditions

Shariah—Comprehensive Law Codes

Tafsir—Commentary

Previous Revelations (now partially corrupted): Hebrew Bible, the Gospels

Sufi Poetry

 

Hebrew Old Testament

 

New Testament:

-Gospels (biographical narratives)

-Acts (early church history)

-Apostolic letters

-The Apocalypse

 

Important Dates

Abrahamic Tradition (1800-1500 BCE)

Mosaic Tradition (15TH Cent BCE)

Prophetic Tradition (9th-5th Cent BCE)

Wisdom Tradition (9th Cent; and the Inter-Testamental period)

Exiles and destruction of temples; Rise of the Synagogue (586 BCE)

Roman dispersion (70 CE)

Re-founding the Nation of Israel (1948 CE)

 

571 CE: Birth of Muhammed

 

622 CE: Hijra (considered birth of Islam; Year one)

 

630 CE: Mecca Conquered

 

Old Testament Dates

 

Birth of Christ

Easter

Day of Pentecost (birth of the church)

 

1517 Protestant Reformation

 

Important People

Abraham and Isaac

Israel, Joseph, and the 12 Tribes

Moses

David

The Prophets (major and minor)

Major Rabbis and Philosophers (early: e.g. Hillel, and Philo) and (later: e.g.: Maimonides, and Issac Wise-Reformed)

 

Abraham, and Ishmael

Muhammad, Shia Ali, Husyan, Fatima 

The Caliph

Ulama (Religious scholars and clergy)

Imans (Sunnis = leaders of prayers; Shiites = Religious/Political intercessory successors of Muhammad)

The Hidden Iman. The Mahdi. Sufi Masters

Shaykh (elder leader; also, head of Sufi Order)

Abraham and David

 

Jesus of Nazareth; the Christ

 

The 12 Apostles

Paul

Reformation: Luther, Calvin, Arminius

Sacred Places

 

 

 

Symbols

Mt. Sinai

The Tabernacle

Israel, Jerusalem

The Temple, The Synagogue

 

Tetragrammaton, Star of David, Tablets of the Decalogue, Torah scroll, Menorah, Harp of David, Shofar

Mecca

Medina, Jerusalem

The Ka‘bah

Sufi Master’s relics

Tomb-shrines of Shiite Imans (at Karbala, Najaf, etc)

 

Star and Crescent, The Mosque

The “Holy Land”

Orthodox Churches

Catholic Pilgrimage Sites, etc

 

The Cross, Crown of Thorns, Dove and Olive Branch, Triqueta, the Fish, Stained Glass Windows, Prayer Hands, The Rosary, The Eucharist Elements, the Alter, the Nativity, the Halo, the Holy Familly     

 

 

JUDAISM

ISLAM                         

CHRISTIANITY

Worship and Liturgical Practices

 

Levitical Sacrificial and Ceremonial laws

Dietary Regulations (prohibited foods, and proper food preparation-Kosher)

The Sabbath

Synagogue Services

The Shema

Amidah and other Prayers

Bar Mitvah

The Five Pillars of Islam:

-Declaration of Faith

-Prayer five times a day facing Mecca

-Almsgiving (2.5% of wealth)

-The Hajj  (Pilgrimage required once)

-Fasting during the month of Ramadan

The Fatiha (Koran 1:1-7)

Friday Islamic Mosque’s Services

Reciting the Koran; also formulaic Koranic pious expressions (e.g.: the basmalah)

Shiites: Martyrdom of Husain (on Ashurah)

Sufi’s “Whirling Dervishes”

 

 

Sunday Church worship, Music, Prayer

The Lord’s Model Prayer

The 7 Sacraments of Roman Catholicism (baptism, communion, penance, marriage, ordination, holy unction, confirmation)

Catholic Sacerdotalism

Eastern Orthodoxy’s use of icons

High Church Liturgies

 

Festivals and Pilgrimages

 

Passover

Day of Atonement

Pentecost

Feast of Booths

Festival of lots

Hanukah

The Jewish New Year

 

 

Hajj (the greater pilgrimage)

‘Umrah (visitation ritual, “lesser pilgrimage”)

Islamic New Year (1st of Muharram)

‘Ashurah: (a beneficent holy day, 10th Muharram)

Muhammad’s birth day (12th of Rabi al Awwal)

The Night Journey (27th of Rajab)

Feast of Fast Breaking (at end of Ramadan)

Feast of Sacrifice (commemorating Abraham’s sacrifice; 10th of Dhu-l-Hijjah)

Shiite: birth and death anniversaries of Imans, pilgrimages to tomb-shrines of Imans, Sufis: death anniversaries of Sufi Saints

 

 

Christmas

Easter

 

High Church’s Liturgical Calendar (Lent, etc)

 

Catholic Pilgrimages

Social Institutions

 

 

Bar Mitvah

 

Jewish Community (identity as a people)

Family

Education

Israeli Government

 

 

 

Ummah (Islamic community)

The Government

Law (4 major schools: Hanafi, Hanbali Maliki, and Shafi). Islamic family law

Education; Madrasas [4 Religious subjects: Tradition (Hadith), law (fiqh), theology (kalam), Exegesis of Koran (Tafsir)]

The Mosque

Islamism and various “Fundamentalist” Organizations (e.g. Muslim Brotherhood)

 

Family

Education

Civic Government

 

Paradigmatic Relationships between  Christ and Culture (against, in paradox, of, revolutionizing, transforming)

 

Church (community of saints)

Paradigmatic Structure, and Religious Organization

Four Divisions:

Orthodox

Conservative

Reformed

Hasidim (mystics)

 

Zionists

 

Levitical Priesthood

Rabbis

Three Divisions:

Sunnis (90%)

Shiites (party of Ali)

Sufis (mystics)

 

Imans (Sunnis = leaders of prayers, heads of Mosques; honorific title of various leaders--e.g. heads of the schools of law; Shiites = Religious/Political intercessory successors of Muhammad)

Shaykh (head of a Sufi Order)

Four Divisions:

Orthodox

Catholic

Protestant

Anglican

 

Several Denominations

Preachers, Priests, Nuns, Bishops, Popes 

Saints, Elders, Deacons, Missionaries

 

 

HINDUISM

BUDDHISM

CONFUCIANISM

TAOUSM

God/Prime Reality

Vedic Pantheon of Nature Gods

Way of Knowledge:  Brahman

Ishvara: Lord; Brahman as object of worship in relation to the world; Also, expressed in the Trimurti

Way of Devotion: Trimurti: Brahma (Creator), Vishnu (Preserver), Shiva (Destroyer).Avataras of Vishnu (10)

Devi (goddess), and shakti 

Devotional gods (found in Puranas, Ramayana, etc): Ganesha, et. al.

 

Theravada: Nirvana

Mahayana: Shunyata/ Emptiness (all  things are devoid of essences; inter-dependently arisen; mere appearances; total insubstantiality; beyond existence and non-existence). 

Trikaya body: the three “bodies” possessed by a Buddha; transcendental reality, also the manifest in the relative

Zen: Shunyata: Absolute truth and Buddha reality)

 

Tien: Heaven  (moral order)

 

Neo-Confucianism: “The Great Ultimate”-T’ai chi: Li in its cosmic aspect; the ultimate principle; creative, unlimited. [Li (normative rational structural principle) combines with chi (primordial vital matter) to produce all else (yin and  yang, the five elements-earth, fire, metal, water, wood; and the world)]

 

 

The Tao: Nameless, Self-So, Whole, undifferentiated, formless, infinite, boundless;

Source of all force and power in existent things; the mother and  matrix of all life: Heaven, Earth, and human kind

 

The way of the universe

 

Nature of World

And Nature of History

 

 

 

Nature of Knowledge

Karma

Prakriti (matter, nature)

Maya: Illusion. Veil of being

Samsara: Cyclical

Polyvalent. A state of permanently unconstricted knowledge of the oneness of Brahman; non-discursive

 

Duhka: all is suffering

Impermanence

Mahayana:Metaphysical Trikaya

Dharma (factors of existence)

Cyclical history

Conventional truth (relative), and Absolute truth (non-mediated)

Zen truth: I am the Buddha reality

Harmonious (ideally)

The Tao (accounts for harmony)

Yin and Yang (accounts for being, becoming, and change) 

The world is a dynamic harmony

 

Cyclical history, but meaningful

Real knowledge possible

All is manifestations of The Tao

Yin and Yang

Chi (breath, primordial and vital energy)

Heaven, Earth, and Human kind

Cyclical History

 

Sage’s Mystical knowledge of the Tao- the nameless.

Epistemological relativism

Nature of Humanity

 

Atman: soul

 

Brahman-Atman

 

The Castes

 

 

Theravada: Anatta (unreality of the self; no atman); Karma and Dependent Origination: The 5 Skandhas (functional unity in flux)

 

Mahayana: Absolute Relativism

Zen: all is the Buddha reality

Confucius: Follow mandate of Heaven-Tien. Man is a social being (in a social context); Li- is a set of social relationships ideally realized

Mencius: man in social context,

Humanity is naturally good: Jen, humanness

Neo-Confucianism: the mind also exhibits Li, or it’s the source of reason

Instantiation of the Tao

 

Exhibits one’s te (power/virtue); also, one obtains it by attaining to the Tao 

 

Relativism: ontological, epistemological, ethical, and aesthetical

Goal: Salvation or

Liberation

Way of Duty (Karma Marga): Better Rebirth

Way of Knowledge (Jnana Marga): moksha/Liberation; through Yoga meditation

Way of Devotion (Bhakti Marga): Ultimate devotion/ dependence

All: Enlightenment, liberation to  

Nirvana

 

Theravada: Arhat (Buddhist Saint; completed the eight-fold path, conquered the three intoxicants, attained the six perfections, and enjoys the higher vision) 

Mahayana: Bodhisattva

 

Classical

-“salvation”: Idealized harmonious relationships

 

Neo-Confucianism

-identity with Li (cosmic)

Classical: Accommodate the Tao

 

 

Magico/Religious: Extend life; become a hsien- an immortal

Ethics

Four Goals/Paths of Life: 2 of desire (pleasure, material success); 2 of renunciation (Duty, Moksha-liberation)

Way of Duty: Karma, Dharma; law codes; Caste duties

Way of Knowledge: becoming a Sannyasin, and a Sadhu

 

The Four Noble Truths

Negative: Avoidances Lists

Positive: Eightfold Path, perfections

Three Jewels/Refuges

Theravada: Ten Precepts Mahayana: Bodhisattva ideal (practicing the ten perfections (paramita) and progressing through the ten stages-bhumis)

Dharma (cosmic law; great norm)

Laity: Dana (giving), the 5 precepts

Five Cardinal Virtues (Li: propriety,

jen: humanness, i: righteousness, hsiao: faithfulness, and chih: wisdom)

The Five Great Relationships and  the Ten Appropriate Attitudes

The Rectification of Names

Shu: Reciprocity (“Do not unto others what you would not have them do unto you”)

Chun tzu: The (Morally) Superior Man

Classical: Live in accordance with the Tao: Let Tao operate in the realm of being- Naturalness, Wu-Wei- actionless action, Spontaneity, Principle of Return, Chang Tzu: complete ontological, epistemological ethical, & aesthetical relativism

 

 

HINDUISM

BUDDHISM

CONFUCIANISM

TAOUSM

Country of Origin and Practice

 

India

 

Nepal

Bangladesh

Sri Lanka

Malaysia

Indonesia

 

India

Mongolia

Tibet

Thailand

South East Asia

Sri Lanka

China

Japan, Korea

 

China

 

Korea

Japan

Taiwan

 

China

 

Taiwan

Sacred Texts

 

Shruti: Four Vedas, Brahmanas, Upanishads

 

Smriti: Dharma Shastras, Nibandhas, Puranas, Ramayana, Mahabharta, Bhagavad Gita

Sutras: Dharma, Grihya, Shrauta

 

Tripitika: Discipline, Discourse, Special Teachings

 

Mahayana Cannon

 

Tibetan Cannon, and Tantric Manuals-Tantras

 

Five Chinese Classics: Book of Changes (I Ching), Book of History (Shu Ching), Book of Poetry (Shih Ching),  Spring and Autumn Annals (Ch’un ch’iu), Book of Rites (Li Chi)

 

Four Books: Analects, Doctrine of the Mean, Great Learning, Mencius

 

Classical Taoism (Tao-chia) :

Tao-Te-Ching, Chang Tzu

 

Magico/Religious (Tao-chiao):

Taoist Canon (the Three Caverns), Talismans

Important Dates

 

Aryan Arrival (1800-1500 BCE)

 

Vedic Age (1200 BCE-600 CE)

 

Classical Period (600-1200 CE)

 

563 BCE Birth of Siddhartha Gautama

 

273 BCE Asoka Enthroned 

 

551 BCE Birth of Confucius

 

371 BCE Birth of Mencius

 

Renaissance of Neo-Confucianism (12th Century CE)

 

 

 

604 BCE Birth of Lao Tzu

 

369 BCE Birth of Chang Tzu

 

 

Important People

Brahmin Priests, Gurus, Yogins, 

Sannyasins, Sadhus

 

Originators or Influential Members of the Six Orthodox Philosophies: Nyaya (Gotama), Vaisheshika (Kanada), Sankhya (Ishvarakrishna), Raja-Yoga (Patanjali), Mimamsa (Jaimini),Vedanta: (Shankara, Ramanuja, Madhva)

Siddhartha Gautama

Buddhist Monks

Originators of Mahayana Buddhist Schools of Philosophy (e.g.s: Nagarjuna, Asanga, and Vasubandhu)

Arhats (Theravada)

Mahayana: Bodhisattvas, and also Transcendental Bodhisattvas (e.g.s.: Avalokiteshvara, and Maitreya)

Dalai Lama (Tibetan Buddhism)

Confucius

Mencius

 

Neo-Confucianism:

Chu Hsi

Wang Yangming

 

Founders of Various Confucian  Schools/Traditions

Lao Tzu, Chang Tzu

Various heads of schools/traditions

Magico/Religious: The Three Pure ones (one of whom is the deified Lao- Tzu);The Eight Immortals (exemplars of sages transformed via Taoist practices-meditation, alchemy, etc.); and also Taoist and Popular Deities

(Pantheon, nature, and popular deities)

Wang Pi - a Neo-Taoist   

Sacred Places

 

 

 

 

 

Symbols

 

Himalayas, Ganges River (various sites-Hardwar, Allahabad), Cities (e.g.s.: Kasi, Banaras), Temples (e.g. Minaksi temple), Many Others

 

Om; The Trimurti; Various gods: Shiva, Ganesha, Kali, etc; Sacred Footprints, Yoga, the Lingam and Yoni, the Bull, the Cow

Temples

Stupas

Pagodas

Buddha Paradises or Pure Lands

 

The Buddha, The Wheel, The Hands of Buddha, Dharma Chakra, Stupas, the Vajra, the Lotus Flower, Prayer wheel, the Parasol, the Conch shell

 

Temples

Shrines

 

 

 

Confucius

Magical Religious: Mountains, Caves, Taoist Temples, The Big Dipper

 

The Ying-Yang Circle

Chinese symbols “appropriated”: (animals): Crane, Dragon, Tortoise, Cicada; (Plants): e.g. the Peach Tree

 

 

HINDUISM

BUDDHISM

CONFUCIANISM

TAOUSM

Worship and Liturgical Practices

Brahmin Sacrifices

Yoga (Patanjali; eight steps)

Sannyasin

Henotheism

Puja (worship)

Use of idols and images (murti)

Darshana (seeing god or the holy)

Visiting Temples

Shrauta rites (public); Grihya rites (private, domestic)

Sacred Thread Ritual (e.g. of a rite of passage, to adulthood)

 

Meditation; Samadhi; Dhyana

Three Jewels: Refuge in the Buddha, in the Dharma, and in the Sangha.

Scripture recitation. Dana (giving alms)

Mahayana: prajna (wisdom) & karuna (compassion); Bodhicitta and the Bodhisattva vow

Zen: zazen (meditation), satori (enlightenment), koan (technique used to show limitations of discursive subject/ object reason)

Tibetan: tantras, mandalas, mantras, mudras, prayer wheels, puja, etc).

Sacrifices to Heaven (past)

Ancestor Veneration (shrines, offerings, ancestral tablets, grave site visitations, etc). Pre-dates, but survives Confucianism 

 

Social Obligations

 

Rites honoring Confucius (hymns of praise, etc); state cult of Confucius up until 1911 offered sacrifices, etc at state temples

Classical: live in accordance with the Tao

Copying & handing down Scripture  

Communication between heaven, human beings and earth

Magical/Religious: hsien -immortal, alchemy (inner and outer), breathing exercises, Tai-Chi ch’uan, Use of Talismans (charm texts) & registers

Veneration of the Immortal Ones

Communal rituals (e.g. Chiao) and private rites (e.g. curing illnesses)

0))

Festivals and Pilgrimages

 

Festivals vary with location and deities honored: E.G.: Divali Festival (Lakshmi, god of wealth and good fortune puja); Birthday of the god Rama (Ramayana); Sarasvati festival (goddess of the arts and learning (celebrated the 1st day of Spring)

 

Pilgrimages: E.G.: To the river Ganges (e.g. city of Varanasi associated with the god Shiva); to Mt Kailas in Himalayas; Hundreds of Pilgrimage sites (sacred rivers, mountains, temples, shrines, etc)

 

Festivals:  Most Theravada festivals include the practice of Paritta- a chanting ceremony)

 

Pilgrimages: Sites include: images of the Buddha, temples, stupas, pagodas, mountains, and bodhi-trees; Sites associated with Siddhartha, Sites associated with various Bodhisattvas, etc

 

Chinese Holidays:

 

Chinese New Year

Ching Ming (ancestors are venerated; First of Spring- April 4th or 5th)

 

 

 

Cosmic Renewal Festival (Chiao)

Other Festivals are based on and consistent with the Chinese calendar

 

Public rituals (there are several private rituals as well) also include: the Consecration of Images, and the P’u-tu ritual (to redeem ghosts; sometimes held on the same day as the Chinese “Ghost Festival”)

 

Social Institutions

 

Four Castes: Brahmin, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Shudras;+ Jatis. Outcastes

 

Four Stages of Life: student, householder, hermit, sannyasin

 

Six Darshanas (systems of philosophy) (Nyaya-logic, Vaisheshika-6 pardarthas, Sankhya-union of consciousness and matter, RajaYoga-meditation, Mimamsa-  rituals, Vedanta-non-dualism)  

 

 

 

Monasteries

 

 

Schools of Mahayana Buddhist Philosophy (e.g.: Madhyamaka, and Yogacara)

 

Family

 

School

 

Society

 

Government

 

 

 

Government- Kings follow the Dao, then “Lazze Fair”

 

Nature integrated

Paradigmatic Structure, and Religious Organization

 

Three Ways of Liberation:

 

Way of Knowledge

Way of Duty

Way of Devotion

 

Brahmin Priests, Gurus, Yogins, 

Sannyasins, Sadhus

 

 

 

 

Theravada

Mahayana

Zen

Tibetan (Vajrayana)

 

Monks

Nuns

Temple Priests

 

 

Classical Confucianism

 

Neo-Confucianism

 

Temple Priests

 

Classical Taoism

Magico/Religious Taoism

 

 

 

Taoist Sage

Taoist Priest

 

Select Reference Bibliography for terms, practices, etc contained in the above charts

(For a more complete annotated Bibliography see “Major World Religions Bibliography”

Posted on this website under the World Religions link)

 

 

Breuilly, Elizabet; et. al. Eds. Religions of the World: The Illustrated Guide to Origins, Beliefs, Traditions, and Festivals. Facts on File, 1997.

Brown, Colin.  New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology.  4 vols. Harper Collins Publishers, Incorporated, 1997.

Cohn-Sherbok, Dan.  A Short Introduction to Judaism.  Oneworld, 1999.

Diener, M.; Friedrichs, K.; Ehrhard, F.; and Fischer-Schreiber, I.  Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion. Verlag, 1989; B & N, 1999.

Esposito, John L.  Islam: The Straight Path. 3rd ed. Oxford, 1998.

Ferguson, Everett.  Backgrounds of Early Christianity. 2nd ed. Eerdmans, 1994.

Glasse, Cyril. Ed.  New Encyclopedia of Islam: A Revised Edition of the Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. AltaMira Press, 2001.

Hamilton, Sue.  Indian Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction. OUP, 2001.

Klostermaier, Klaus.  Buddhism: A Short Introduction. Oneworld, 1999.

Klostermaier, Klaus K.  A Survey of Hinduism. 2nd ed. State University of New YorkPress, 1994.

Livingstone, E.A.;  Cross, F.L.; and Elizabeth A. Livingstone. Eds. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. 3rd ed. Oxford, 1997.

Miller, James. Daoism: A Short Introduction. Oneworld Press, 2003.

Noss, John B.  A History of the World's Religions. 11th Rev. Ed. N.Y.: MacMillian, 2003.

Pas, Julian F.; and Jon Woronoff.  Eds.  Historical Dictionary of Taoism. Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1998.

Sire, James.  The Universe Next Door: A Basic World View Catalogue.  IVP, 1997. 

Strauss, James D. Part II Of The Demise Of Truth In Postmodern Inter-Religious Pluralism: Death Of Truth: From Truth To Relevance. At

            http://www.worldvieweyes.org/resource-rv.html (under the World Religions link)

Xinzhong Yao. An Introduction to Confucianism. Cambridge University Press, 2000.