Introduction to Issues and Paradigms

1. Rational Empiricism

2. Emphasis on The Individual

3. Instrumental nature of The State

4. Voluntarism

5. The Law behind The Law

6. Emphasis on Means

7. Discussion and Consent in Human Relations

8. Basic Equality of All Human Beings


The Declaration of Independence makes it perfectly plain that all men are created equal, in the sense that they have certain unaliena….


but a loan, as it were, an opportunity, a challenge. The Jeffersonian phrase, “pursuit of happiness,” admirably expresses the thought that man does not have the right to happiness, in the sense that the state or his family or friends owe him happiness, but only in the sense that he has the right to pursue happiness, unhindered by unreasonable obstacles


Legislative action cannot equalize the I.Q. of the population, and there will always be differences of ability, drive, and motivation, but laws can make equality of opportunity more real by trying to equalize conditions before the race starts: increased inheritance taxes lessen the impact of inherited wealth, progressive income taxes favor the lower income groups, and free education (from nursery school to the university) benefits the indigent more than the affluent. In other words, equality of opportunity, if it allows ability alone to operate, quickly .establishes and perpetuates inequality. Need must also be considered; it adds to the principle of efficiency that of happiness.


Individual Freedom and National Security


The best introduction into the problem of individual liberty is still John S,. Mill’s essay On Liberty, 1859. As Alexis de Tocqueville had done in his “Democracy in America (1835-1840), Mill attacked the illusion that evolution of government from tyranny to democracy necessarily solves the problem of individual liberty. Tyranny can be exercised by one, by a few, or by the majority, and the latter is potentially the worst of all, since it commands the widest moral support, whereas oppression by one or a few is mainly physical.


Capitalism developed historically as part of the great movement of rationalist individualism. In the capitalist system, ownership as the means of production (land, factories, machinery, natural resources) is held by individuals, not by the State. This does not exclude public ownership of natural monopolies or basic public services (the post office, atomic arms), but such cases are considered the exception rather than the rule.


The bias of the capitalist civilization in favor of private ownership of the means of the production is based on two consideration. (1) Ownership of productive property means power over the lives of other property owners rather than held by one owner, the State. (2) The assumption of capitalist thinking is that technological progress is more easily attained when each person minds his own business, and has a personal incentive to do so.


The second principle of the capitalist system is that of the market economy. In the precapitalist era, the economy was generally local and self-sufficient; each family produced just about what it needed, supplementing its simple needs with some barter. Division of labor was hardly known. Type of occupation and price charged was predetermined by custom and usage/


Totalitarian Fascism


Introduction: Social Background of Fascism


I. Psychological Roots of Totalitarianism

        A. Authoritarian tradition is predominant in Germany, Japan, Italy, Argentina, etc.

B. Studies show that 10% of Americans are strongly authoritarian and about 20% show authoritarian tendencies (T.W. Adorno,, The Authoritarian Personality, 1950).

C. Authoritarianism as a mass movement depends largely on the willingness of the majority to submit and obey.

D. “Big Brother” in Orwell’s book, 1984, is a classical expression of totalitarianism. The semantics of totalitarianism says that “War is peace, freedom is slavery, and ignorance is strength.”

E. The “herd mind” re: family and education.

F. Dependence, submission to security.

G. Authoritarianism (personal psychology) and mass submission: 17 million Germans voted for Adolph Hitler in 1933; millions of French and Italians have persistently voted Communist since the end of World War II.   


II. Fascist Doctrine and Policy


A. Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (1925-27) and Mussolini wrote The Doctrine of Fascism (1932). Nazism was a specifically German brand of Fascism.

B. Fundamental Doctrines: (1) Distrust of reason; (2) Denial of basic human equality; (3) Code of Behavior based on lies and violence; (4) Government by the elite; (50 Totalitarianism; (6) Racialism and imperialism; (7) Opposition to international law and order.

C. Anti Feminists: the three K’s -- Kinder, Kuche, and Kirche. Ridiculed the institution of marriage as false Jewish/Christian prejudice. Encouraged German women to produce children for the fatherland out of wedlock.


III. Fascist Economics: The Corporate State


A. One party State is the ultimate arbiter of conflicts between capital and labor. It rests on two presuppositions:

1. Man should not be politically articulate.

2. The small ruling elite are alone qualified to govern the community.

B. Specialization and Superior judgment. Jesus never received a Ph.D. in religion, Socrates never attended a school of education, Abraham Lincoln did not major in political science and Winston Churchill never went to college at all.


Socialism: The Precursor of Communism


1. Political Messiahism

2. The religion of revolution and totalitarian democracy

3. 19th century collectivism versus 18th century individualism--contrast or identity?

4. The break in historic continuity and the idolization of history

5. Security and freedom--socialism, liberalism, democracy

6. Universalism and nationalism

7. Appearance and reality


Socialist Messiahism


1. From Technocracy to Theocracy

a. Totalitarian technocracy--Saint Simon

b. The Dialectic of romantic totalitarianism: the Saint Simonist school

2. Individual and organization in Utopia (Fourier, Considerant)

3. The Totalitarian-Democratic Communist revolution--pre 1848 French communism

4. From Contractual Individualism (Fichte) to Messianic pre 1848 Marxism

a. Fichte: from Anarchism to totalitarian democracy and organicism

b. Marx--from Totalitarian Democracy to Messianic Communism

(1) Hegelian dilemmas

(2) From self-alienation to self-recovery

(a) The state and democracy

(b) Religion

© Apocalypse

(d) Property and the proletariat

(3) The grand prophecy

(4) Science or Utopia?


Messianic Nationalism


1. From Papal to popular infallibility (lamennais)

2. Gesta Dei per Francos (Michelet)

3. People-Messiah (Mazzini, Mickiewica)

4. Universal creed and national uniqueness




1. The Right of the Day (de Maistre, Bonald, German romantics)

2. Liberalism versus Democratic and Socialist Messiaism

3. A Confrontation


Ideas and Realities


I. An Industrial Revolution?


1. Structural Crisis and Catastrophic Change

a. Demographic changes

b. The conditions of an industrial revolution

c. The land

d. Industrial growth

2. The Anatomy of Misery

a. Wages

b. Pauperization

3. The Growth of Consciousness

a. Repressively liberal legislation

b. Industrial unrest

c. The dignity of labor

4. Mind and Reality


II. The Latent Revolution

1. The Right to Revolution

a. The problem of legitimacy

b. Sociological factors

2. Riot and Plot

a. Riot and repression

b. Conspiracy under the restoration

c. Secret societies under the early July monarchy

3. The Radicalization of the Underground

a. The social issue

b. Towards totalitarian communism

c. Split on the meaning of the “right to work”


The Trial and The Debacle


1. From Riot to Revolution

2. The Revolution that failed to come off--a caricature of the Greek revolution

3. The Abortive social revolution

4. The failure of the international revolution




1. Bonapartist dictatorship

2. Nationalist and liberal re orientation

3. Marxist re orientation


Communism: Neo-Marxism/ Liberation Theologies/Eurocommunism


A. Historical Background: (see my syllabi, Modern/Contemporary Philosophy and Hegel/Marx and Liberation Theologies)

1. Marx

2. Marxism

3. Theory of labor value and surplus value (four wage)

4. Class Struggle

5. Economic and Dialectical materialism

6. Revolution, Dictatorship and Utopia


B. Importance of Understanding the Philosophical Foundations of Communism

1. Communism: Marx and Lenin

2. Indoctrination

3. Theory guides their behavior


C. The Basic Philosophy of Communism:

1. Philosophy of Nature

2. Philosophy of Mind

3. Philosophy of History

4. Philosophy of State

5. Philosophy of Religion

6. Philosophy of Morality

7. Philosophy of Revolution

8. Philosophy of Society


D. Liberalism, Marxism, and Christianity

1. Contemporary Capitalism

2. Classical Liberalism

3. Christian Social Concern

4. A Christian Society


E. Christian Anti-Communism

1. “Love of the Truth”

2. Self Examination

3. The Real Enemy

4. Love your Enemies

5. A positive, constructive program, which will enable us to fulfill our responsibilities to God, Christ’s Church and Mankind.


F. Capitalism, the Classless Society and Man

1. Foundation of Capitalism

2. Capitalism and Criticism

3. Marxist Theology

4. Evil and Salvation in Marxism

5. The Classless Society

6. Evil and Salvation in the Bible

7. Christian Doctrine of Property

8. Christian Stewardship

9. Roads to Utopia

10. Christianity and History


G. Philosophical Roots of Marxism

1. Hegel

2. Feuerbach

3. Marxism and Positivism

4. Friedrich Engels

5. Vladimir Illyich Lenin


H. Soviet Philosophy

1. Conception of Philosophy

2. Philosophy and the Special Sciences

3. Unity of Theory and Practice

4. Theory of Knowledge

5. Theory of Logic


I. Soviet Science

1. Theory of Matter

2. Quantum Physics

3. Relativity Theory

4. Mass and Energy

5. Chemistry

6. Cosmogony

7. The Origin of Life

8. The New-Cell Theory of O.B. Lepeshinskoya

9. Anthropology and Psychology, I.P. Pavlov


J. Chinese Science since the Cultural Revolution




The way of all past civilizations: Politics and Progress--from bondage to spiritual faith; from spiritual faith to great courage; from courage to liberty; from liberty to abundance; from abundance to selfishness; from selfishness to complacency; from complacency to apathy; from apathy to dependency; from dependency back again into bondage. (F.H. Bender, Mound, MN)


A. Definitions:


1. Conservatism--Latin etymology (verb” to conserve” or keep intact the status-quo (see Oxford English Dictionary)


2. Liberalism--Latin etymology (noun, “liberalis”, befitting a free man; verb, “libeare,” to set free


B. Four Presuppositions of Liberalism (see my syllabus, “Making of The Contemporary Mind”)


1. The inevitability of human progress

2. The inherent goodness of man

3. The ultimate reality of nature

4. The ultimate animality of man


C. The Transition from the Medieval to Modern World


1. Revolutions (French, Industrial)

2. The desire for the means of “Change”

a. Revolution

b. Reformation

c. Re-evaluation

d. Regeneration


D. The Coming of Nationalism and Its Political Problems


1. Machiavelli (1469-1527)

a. Self interest               

b. Insatiable desire

2. Natural Law (Divine right of kings)

3. Two general political problems

a. Establishing and regulating the sovereign power of the nation state.

b. Method of deciding how, by whom, and for what purpose the power

c. Before this radical change the Roman Catholic Church wielded total authority                       over very facet of European society.


E. Great Milestones in the Development of Liberal Democracy


1. The arguments for and against political equality occasioned by the debates at the close of the English Puritan Revolution.

2. The controversy between Thomas Hobbes and John Locke concerning “human nature” and its implications for political theory.

3. Jean Jacques Rousseau’s eloquent appeal for the sovereignty of the “general will.”

4. Montesquieu’s contribution to the general debate asserted that “political liberty” depended upon the institutional separation of legislative, judicial and executive powers.

5. Jeremy Bentham’s proclamation regarding the “utilitarian principle” of the greatest good of the greatest number.

6. Adam Smith’s liberal economic theory that “the greatest collective prosperity inevitably results from the greatest possible reliance on the unfettered self-interest of the individual (Laissez faire, individualism opposed to any external governmental controls).


7. Post-Keynesian Economics/Post Industrial Social, e.g. D. Bell.


(See the following: Joseph Schumpeter, History of Economic Analysis (Oxford University Press, 11th printing, 1980); Milton Friedman, leader of The Chicago School of Economics--Free Markets and Freedom are inseparable (my essay, “The Myth of Value Free Economics and Friedman Theories”; John Maynard Keynes (e.g. The Keynesian Revolution, especially The General Theory, 1993); Friedrich Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty (University of Chicago Press, 1960); Individuals and Economic Order (U of Chicago Press, 1980); The Road to Serfdom (U of Chicago Press, 1994); John Kenneth Galbraith (esp. Galbraith on Keynesian Economic Theory--The Balance Between Government and Free Market Systems; Daniel Yergin and Joseph Stanislaw, The Commanding Heights: The Battle for World Economy (see esp. The PBS series, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1998).




Carew-Hunt, Robert N., Books on Communism (Oxford University Press, 1962).

________, The Theory and Practice of Communism (NY: MacMillan Co., 1951).

________. A Guide to Communist Jargon (MacMillan Co.

Lelaney, Robert F., The Literature of Comunism in America (The Catholic University of

America Press, Washington, DC, 1962).

Fund for the Republic Bibliography on the Communist Problem in the US (NY: 1955, 2 vols,).

Berdyaev, Nicolas, The Origin of Russia, Communism (University of Michigan Press (Ann

Arbor,   Mi, 1960)

D’Arcy, Martin, Communism and Christianity (Devin-Adair, 1957).

Djilas, Milovan, The New Class ( Praeger, NY, 1958).

Philbrick, Herbert, I Led Three Lives (Grossett, NY, 1952).

Bales, J.D., Communism, Its Faith and Fallacies (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1962).

DeKoster, Lenter, Communism and Christian Faith (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans).Also, The

Vocabulary of Communism (same, 1963).

Hodgkinson, Harvy, (The Language of Communism (Pitman Publishing Corporation).

Hunter, Edward, Brain Washing in Red China, the Calculated Destruction of Men’s Minds (The Vanguard Press).

Lichtheim, George.  Marxism: A Historical and Critical Study )

Lobin, Suzanne, The Technique of Soviet Propaganda (Government Printing Office).

Miemeyer, Gerhart, Handbook on Communism.

Rossony, S.T., A Century of Conflict--Communist Techniques of World Revolution (Henry Regnery Co.

Talmon, J.L., Political Messiaism: The Romantic Phase, edited by J.M. Bochenski. 

Chinese Communist World Outlook

Communist Youth Activities (8th World Youth Festival, Helsinki, Finland, 1962).

Soviet Science and Technology

Soviet World Outlook

The Problems of Communism


Early Utilitarianism:

Jeremy Bentham, Works, Edinburgh, 1843-1859.

Halevy, Elie, The Growth of Philosophic Radicalism (NY, 1928).

Keeton, G.W. and Schwarzenberger, George, Jeremy Bentham and The Law (London, 1948).

Stephen, Leslie, The English Utilitarians (London, 1900).

James Mill - Analysis of The Phenomena of The Human Mind (London, 1878); also Elements of

Political Economy (London, 1826).

John Austin - The Austinian Theory of Law (edited by W. Jethro Brown), London, 1931).


Thomas Paine and The Rights of Man: (see my syllabus, “The Historiography of The Theories

of Law”)

Paine -- Complete Writings (edited by Philip S. Finer), New York, 1945.


Selected Works (edited by Howard Fast) London, 1948).

Common Sense

Age of Reason

Rights of Man

Political Works (London, 1817-1819)


Berthold, S.M., Thomas Paine, America’s First Liberal (Boston, 1938).



Burke and The Appeal to History: (see my syllabus “The Enlightenment” and “Historiography

of the Theories of History”


Burke -- Works

Selected Works (edited by E.J. Payne) Oxford, 1921-1926.

Speech on Conciliation with America (New York, 1922.

Burke’s Politics (edited by R.J.S. Hoffman and Paul Levack (NY, 1949).

Letters of Edmund Burke, A Selection (ed. Harold Laski), London, 1922.

Baumann, Arthur A. Burke: The Founder of Conservatism (London, 1929).

Cobban, Alfred. Edmund Burke and The Revolt Against The Eighteenth Century (London,


Reynolds, Ernest E. Edmund Burke:: A Christian Statesman (London, 1948).


French Thought and The Idea of Progress: (see my thesis, “God, Creation, Rationality and

Theories of Scientific Progress”)


Montesquieu, Considerations on The Cause of The Grandeur and Declension of The Roman Empire (Glasgow, 1883).

De l’Esprit des lois (Paris, 1922).

Extraits sur la loi, la liberte, et le government anglois (Princeton, 1944).

Levin-Malvano, E. Montesquieu e Machiavelli (Paris, 1912).

Levin, Lawrence M., the Political Doctrine of Montesquieu’s Esprit des Lois (New York, 1936).

Morgan, .Charles, The Liberty of Thought and The Separation of Powers (Oxford, 1948).

Baron d’Holbach (Paul Henri Thiry), La Morale Universelle (Tours, 1792).

______, Systeme de la Nature (Amsterdam, 1770).

______. Systeme Social (London, 1774).

Voltaire, The Works of Voltaire (Paris, New York, 1901).

______, Candide; also Dictionnaire Philosophique (Paris, 1838).

Turgot, Oeuvres (Paris, 1844); also, Correspondence in edite de Condorcet et Turgot (Paris,

1883); Life and Writings of Turgot (ed. W. Walker Stephens), London, 1895);

Reflections on The Formation and Distribution of Wealth (London, 1793); Turgot, 1727-

1781. Textes choises et pref. Par Pierre Vigreux (Paris, 1947),.

Condorcet, Outlines of A Historical View of The Progress of The Human Mind (Philadelphia, 1796).

Schapiro, Jacob S., Condorcet and The Rise of Liberalism (New York, 1934).

Rousseau, Discours sur les sciences et les arts (London, 1946).

Babbitt, Irving, Rousseau and Romanticism (New York, 1935).

Cassirer, Ernst, Rousseau, Kant and Goethe (Princeton University Press, 1945).

Cuendet, W., La Philosophie Religieuse de Rousseau (Geneva, 1913).

Osborn, Annie M., Rousseau and Burke, A Study of The Idea of Liberty in 18th Century Political Thought (London, 1940).

Talmon, J.L., The Rise of Totalitarian Democracy (New York, 1952).


German Political Theory and The Revival of Idealism: (see Modern/Contemporary Philosophy syllabus on reserve in LCC library)


Kant, Critique of Judgment (London, 1914); Critique of Practical Reason and Other Writings in

Moral Philosophy (Chicago University Press, 1949); Critique of Pure Reason (London,

1929); Lectures on Ethics (New York, 1930); The Moral Law (London, 1948); Perpetual

Peace (Los Angeles, 1932); Principles of Politics (Edinburgh, 1891); Prolegomena to Any

Future Metaphysics (Chicago, 1902); Religion Within The Limits of Reason Alone

(Chicago, 1934).

England, Frederick E., Kant’s Conception of God (New York, 1930).

Maier, Josef, On Hegel’s Critique of Kant (Columbia Press, 1939).

Paton, Herbert J., The Categorical Imperative, A Study in Kant’s Moral Philosophy (NY, 1938),.

Also, Kant’s Metaphysic of Experience (NY, 1936).

Schilpp, Paul A., Kant’s Pre-Critical Ethics (Northwestern University Press, 1938).

Webb, Clement C.J., Kant’s Philosophy of Religion (Oxford, 1926).


Fichte: The Popular Works of Johann Gottlieb Fichte (London, 1889); Aus Fichtes leben (Berlin,

1918); The Vocation of Man (Chicago, 1906); Volk und Staat (Munchen, 1921).




Hegel (see section in my syllabus, “Modern/Contemporary Philosophy) Werke (Berlin, 1832-1840).

Early Theological Writings (Translation T.M. Knox, Chicago University Press, 1948).

Lectures on The Philosophy of History (tr. J. Sibree) (London, 1894).

Lectures on The Philosophy of Religion (Tr. E.B. Speirs), London, 1895).

The Logic of Hegel (Tr. W. Wallace), Oxford, 1892).

The Phenomenology of Mind (New York, 1910).

Baillie, James B., The Origin and Significance of Hegel’s Logic (New York, 1901).

Caird, Edward, Hegel (Edinburgh, 1883).

McTaggart, John, A Commentary on Hegel’s Logic (Cambridge, 1910). Also, The Phenomenology of Mind (New York, 1910).

Marcuse, Herbert, Reason and Revolution; Hegel and The Rise of Social Theory (Oxford, 1941).


The French Revolution and Reaction:

DeBonald, Oeuvres Completes (Paris, 1859).

DeMaistre, Oeuvres Completes (Lyon, 1884-1893).


The Utopian Socialists:


Ely, Richard T., French and German Socialism in Modern Times.

Fourier, Charles, Oeuvres Completes (Paris, 1841-1848).

Etienne Cabet., Colonie Icarienne aux Etats-Unis d’Amerique (Paris, 1856).

Claude Henry Saint-Simon, Oeuvres Choisis (Bruxelles, 1859). Also Nouveau Christianisme

(Paris, n.d.).

Robert Owen. The Book of The New Moral World (London, 1842); The Life of Robert Owen  (New York, 1920); A New View of Society and Other Writings (London, 1927).

Cole, G.D.H., The Life of Robert Owen (London, 1930).

Simon H., Robert Owen; Sein Leben und seine Bedeutung fur die Gegenwart (Jena, 1925).


Twentieth Century Political Development: Beyond Salt II and Detente’

Science Fiction:


Huxley, Adolphus, The Brave New World and The Brave New World Revisited

Orwell, George, 1984 (Harcourt, Brace Co., Signet Classic, 1949); the Animal Farm, Signet, 1946).

(Consult the Encyclopedia of Social Science on the following: Socialism, Communism, Democracy, Conservatism, Liberalism, and Totalitarianism, etc.)

Almond, Gabriel, A., The Appeals of Communism (Princeton, 1954).

Barnett, A.D., editor, Communist Strategies in Asia: A Comparative Analysis of Governments and Parties (NY: F.A. Praeger, 1963).

Barth, Alan, The Loyalty of Free Men (NY: Pocket Books, 1952).

Bell, Daniel, The End of Ideology (NY: Colllier Books, 1963).

Bergson, Abram and Simon Kuznets, editors, Economic Trends in The Soviet Union  (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963).

Bullock, Alan, Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (NY: Bantam Books, 1955).

Cantril, Hadley, Human Nature and Political Systems, New Brunswick: Rutgers Press, 1961).

Clarke, Gerald, The Coming Explosion in Latin America (NY: David McKay, 1962).

Crankshaw, Edward, The New Cold War: Moscow Versus Peking (Baltimore, Penguin Books,     1963).

Draper, T., Castro’s Revolution: Myths and Realities (NY: Praeger, 1962, pb.).

Ebenstein, Wm., Fascist Italy (NY: American Book Co., 1939).

Friedrich, C.J. and Z.K. Brzezinski, Totalitarian Dictatorships and Autocracy (Harvard Press, ‘56)

Galbraith, J.K., The Affluent Society (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1958).

Hilberg, Paul, The Destruction of The European Jews (Chicago: Quadrangle, 1961).

Hodgkin, Thomas, African Political Parties (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1962).

Koestler, Arthur, Darkness At Noon (NY: Mentor Books, 1948).

Kolarz, Walter, Religion in The Soviet Union (NY: St. Martin’s, 1961).

Lilienthal, David E., Big Business: A New Era (NY: Harper & Row, 1953).

Meiklejohn, Alexander, Political Freedom (NY: Harper & Row, 1960).

Morgan, James N. And Others, Income and Welfare in the United States (NY: McGraw-Hill, ‘62)

Myrdal, Gunnar, Beyond The Welfare State (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press 1962).

Wallich, Henry C., The Cost of Freedom: Conservatism and Modern Capitalism (NY: Collier Books, 1962).

Ward, Barbara, The Rich Nations and The Poor Nations (NY: W.W. Norton, 1962).

Warner, W. L. And James Abegglen, Big Business Leaders in America (Atheneum PB, 1963).

Whyte, William H., The Organization Man (Garden City, NY: Doubleday (Anchor) 1957).