THE ORDER OF GOD AND THE DISORDER OF MAN:
THE CHRONOLOGY OF EPHESUS IN CONTEXT
560 B.C. Ephesus was an oriental town taken by the Lydians.
557 B.C. Persians conquer her and vie for years with the Greeks for Ephesus.
325 B.C. Alexander the Great conquered her and gave her to Lysinachus.
190 B.C. Attalus, King of Pergamos, died and Ephesus was bequeathed to the Roman Empire
SECOND MISSIONARY JOURNEY
51-52 A.D. Paul reasoned in the synagogue (Acts 18.19) and left Priscilla and Aquila, who had been with him from Corinth.
THIRD MISSIONARY JOURNEY (Chronology based on the Structure of Acts)
53-56 A.D. Two-year ministry of Paul.
Apollos taught by Aquila and Priscilla and sent to Achaia in southern Greece (Corinth became a source of division there, vs. 12)
Baptism discussed of John by Paul - 19.1-7
Paul preached in the synagogue three months and in the Hall of Tyrannus two years (Judaism was a legal religion in the Roman Empire) - Acts 19.8
Worked miracles - Acts 19
Case of exorcism, sons of Sceva - 19.12-17
Books of magic burned - 19.18-20
Short visit to Corinth - II Corinthians 13.1
I Corinthians written (I Cor. 5.9) messenger from Chloe (I Cor. 1)
Sent Timothy and Erastus to Macedonia - Acts 19.21-22 (Asia was evangelized in two years)
Impeached by Demetrius - Acts 19.23-41
Stayed three years and evangelized Asia - Acts 19.10
Titus sent to Corinth (II Cor. 8.6, 12.18)
Deputation from Corinth (I Cor 16.17) and sent back with the first letter to the Corinthians with Stephanas, Fortunatus, and Achaicus
56 A.D. Riot and departure to Macedonia - Acts 19.28 - 20.1.
57 A.D. Visits Ephesus on his return/ Charge to the elders - 20.17-18
59-62 A.D. Paul in Rome. Tychicus and Onesimus carry Colossians, Philemon and Ephesians (Eph 6.21-22, Col. 4.7-9)
62-63 A.D. Paul is acquitted. Visited Macedonia - I Tim 1.3, & wrote I Timothy to the Ephesians
64 A.D. Timothy leaves for Rome with Mark
Tychicus sent to Ephesus - II Tim. 4.12
II Timothy written which prompts Timothy to leave Ephesus and bring Paul’s books and coat - II Tim. 4.13.
64-65 A.D. Peter sent Sylvannus with I Peter to Asia and probably Ephesus. I Peter 5.12 and 1.1
85 A.D. John preached in Ephesus and wrote I John. Wrote II John to Gaius at Pergamum
96 A.D. John from Patmos wrote to Ephesians (2.1-7)
Picture in Rev. 18.12-13 may have been drawn from Ephesus (F.W. Farrar)
Revelation 1.8 - “Exile for the word of Christ.” Jews were recognized by Rome and free not to worship emperors or polytheism. But Christianity was seen as a sect of Jewish faith and illegal--hence persecuted for their treason.
262 A.D. Temple burned by the Goths and never rebuilt.
341 A.D. A council of the church was held there. Paganism of Rome had waned--Christianity offered hope, especially to the poor and depressed, and she conquered the intellectual in a dying culture.
The Council at Ephesus (Nestorian Controversy) Five patriarchal sees: Antioch, Rome, Ephesus, Alexandria, Constantinople.
Nestorius (Mark from Antioch)
Cyril (Alexandria) emphasized “Mother of God.” The nature of Christ was the issue. Cyril won for a time and Nestorius sent to trim shrubs. Memnon was the Bishop of Ephesus and was on Cyril’s side and plotted the victory by any means. He was jealous of Constantinople.
1308 A.D. Turks conquered and destroyed the city.
CHRISTIANS AT EPHESUS
Aquila, Priscilla of Rome - Acts 18.18-19 Apostacy
Apollos of Alexandria - I Cor. 16-12 Alexander - I Tim. 1.20
Gaius of Macedonia - Acts 19.29 Hymenaeus- II Tim. 2.17
Aristarchus of Thessalonica - Acts 19.29 Hermogenes- II Tim. 1.15
Trophimus of Ephesus - Acts 20.4 Phygelus - II Tim. 1.15
Tychicus of Ephesus - Acts 20.4 Philetus - II Tim. 2.17
Onesiphorus - II Timothy 1.16
Epaenetus of Ephesus - Romans 16.5
Sosthenes of Corinth - I Cor. 1.1
Nymphas of Laodicea - Col. 4.15
Philemon of Colossae - Philemon 1
Apphia of Colossae - Philemon 2
Archippus of Colossae - Philemon 2
Epaphras of Colossae - Philemon 2
Erastus of Corinth - Acts 19.22
Stephanas of Corinth - I Cor. 16.15
Fortunatus of Corinth - I Cor. 16.17
Achaicus of Corinth - I Cor. 16.17
Messengers of Chloe of Corinth - I Cor. 1.4
THE CITY-- It was burned seven times and rebuilt; it was the commercial center for Asia; it was Asia’s bank and the temple was her safe and Asia’s Mecca; a free city--no Roman soldiers there; self governed (had a city clerk - Acts 19.35); Herodotus was a philosopher at Ephesus; population was 250,000.
THE TEMPLE OF ARTEMUS --Artemus was the mother goddess; she was Asiatic and not Greek or Roman; Romans thought she was just Diana, fallen from Jupiter (Zeus) in heaven (Acts 19.35); she was worshiped like the fertility cults so seductive of Israel, all Asia worshiped her (Acts 19.27) The original temple was built in 900 B.C., enlarged in 550 B.C., burned in 356 B.C. (The year of Alexander the Great’s birth); rebuilt in 350 B.C. and destroyed in 262 B.C.
ARCHEOLOGICAL INSCRIPTIONS SHOW--
Acts 19.13 - “I adjure you . . .” - the regular formula for exorcists.
Acts 19.31 - “Asiarchs” -- leader in the rites of emperor, cult in Asia.
Acts 19.35 - “Town clerk” - leading city official
Acts 19.35 - “Temple keeper” - especially to emperor worship
P. Benoit, “Paul in Ephesians” Revue Biblica 46 (1932), 342-361 and 506-525.
J. Goodspeed, The Meaning of Ephesians ( Chicago, 1933).
Stig Hanson, The Unity of The Church in The New Testament (Uppsala, 1963) pp. 73-120 and
“Unity of The Church in Ephesians”
J. Hastings, “The Ephesians” in Speakers in the Bible (Edinburgh, 1925).
J.R.W. Stott, Ephesians (InterVarsity Pres, 1978).
G.H. Whitaker, “The Chief Corner Stone”, and “The Building of The Body” Expository Times
G.H. Whitaker , “Ephesians 4.16” (Journal of Theological Studies, p. 48ff).