The Problem of The Holy Spirit at Corinth


(See my article, "The Christ, The Charismata, The Church and The Consummation" in the LCS Library)


I.   The penetration of the Corinthian letters is essential for Paul's theology of the Holy Spirit. This relationship (Pentecostalism) is most apparent in Paul's discussion of the spiritual gifts in I Cor 12-14. Paul further develops his instructions in II Cor 10-13. What was Paul's use of huper (beyond or over) in the Corinthian correspondence? What did the Corinthians go beyond? Scriptures, the Apostle or both? (cf. Oepke, art. "ekstatis", TWNT, II 449-460)


A.  I Cor 12 - The Central question that we are faced with is, how is Christian spirituality to be expressed in the congregational meeting?


B.   I Cor 12.2 - Paul begins by telling the Corinthians what 'spiritual things' (ta pneumatika) are not. Their pagan worldview was pantheistic animism. Everything contained an overpowering spirit and they were carried away by spiritual forces. The truly spiritual person was not swept away by the animistic powers of their fanatical religion. In chps 12-14 Paul has written that seizures are not necessarily Christian or essentially spiritual.


C.  I Cor 12.3 - Paul sees the essence of the Christian faith in the confession that Jesus is Lord. This confession is intelligent and intelligible, rather than an ecstatic utterance. The Spirit ascribes deity to Jesus (cf. I Jn 4.1-3). The genuinely spiritual bears witness to the human; the counterfeit spiritual bears witness to the spiritual. Here Paul is contrasting their pagan and Christian experience.


D.  I Cor 12.4-7 - If the central work of the Spirit is the honoring of Jesus in speech, this work is not in any sense monotonous or uniform (cf. J. C. Hurd, The Origin of I Corinthians (NY: Seabury, 1965); J. P. M. Sweet, "A Sign for Unbelievers: Paul's Attitude to Glossolalia" NT St 13 (Apr 1969), esp. 240-41).  Paul shifts his vocabulary (spiritual things). In place of this term Paul now substitutes charismata, i.e., graces or grace things. The Spirit's ministry was subsumed under grace (I Cor 2.12) and see the Spirit's ministry not as the glorification of the numinous exotic, spiritual or useless, but for the witnessing power of the historic, concrete, crucified and risen Lord. A charisma or grace is first of all defined as a service (Diakonia, vs. 3). It is not primarily a spiritual privilege for the individual, for his own edification, enjoyment or restruction. As a service, a grace is given for others; it is there for the Church. Paul relates the Spirit and Jesus as Lord as does the rest of the New Testament. Paul uses every means possible, whether kurios, charisma, or syntax, to preserve the living inner relationship of the Spirit to and for Christ - of the spiritual to and for grace and of individual endorsement to and for the Church (see the functional identification of the Lord and the Spirit in Herrmann, Kyrios und Pneuma, pp. 64-5, 140-4). Paul concludes that the grace-gifts are all "for the common good." The spiritual gifts exist for 'commimio" not for the individual. A charisma is given not for the sake of the saint but for the sake of the communion of the saints.


E.   I Cor 12.8-11 - Paul then provides a list of some of the various gifts. Prominent at the head are gifts of intelligent and thoughtful utterance. Prominent at the end are gifts of ecstatic utterance and their interpretation. The entire variety of gifts are all are being continually apportioned (pr. tense vb.) by the one Spirit to each person as the Spirit wills.


F.   12.1-11 - Paul's treatment in these opening verses has sufficed to conceal (1) any view which sees the most spiritual in the most overpowering (vs. 2); (2) any narrow view of what is truly spiritual (varieties vss 4-7); (3) any view of gifts which sees "spiritual things" as primarily rewards for effort rather than presents of grace (charismata, vs. 4 et al); (4) any view which sees in a variety of gifts only a variety of dedication rather than mainly, the sovereign will of God (vs 4-7) "as He wills;" (5) any view which treasures gifts for what they do for the recipient rather then or more then for what they do for the congregation ("service"), "the common good", ("utterance"); (6) aid perhaps primarily any view which separates Jesus from the Spirit. Is Paul addressing those who claim a "deeper spirituality" or in seeing simple Christian testimony as less deeply spiritual than being swept away in enthusiasm or seeing the historical Jesus as less than The Lord or in seeing the Spirit as leading one beyond what one has 'merely' in Jesus Christ, instead of leading precisely to him (vs 3) or in leading the Christian above and beyond "most Christians" and other people instead of to them in service and ministry.


G.  12.12-13 - Paul next addresses the unity of the body in relationship to the gifts. One Spirit gives the gifts. Nowhere in the NT is the phrase "Baptism in the Holy Spirit" found. These verses are addressed to "all" not a special group in the Church. Paul underscores the Corinthians unity even further by employing in this single verse no less then three times the great word of this chapter,"one" ("by one. . .unto one. . .of one").


1. "By one Spirit we were baptized"

2. All are baptized into one body by one Spirit (we do not read of two baptisms, only one (Eph 4). Spirit baptism divides both Christ and His Church),

3. The baptism of the believer baptizes us into one Church and one Lord for one purpose - the universal mission of the Church (Matt 28.19; I Cor 6.17; 15.45; II Cor 3.17-18). When we are baptized into Christ the Spirit is present. Baptism is Christologically oriented. We are not saved by the Holy Spirit.


H.  12. 14-31 - With the Churches unity as signified by baptism, Paul now turns to the relationship between "unity" and "variety" (cf. Beasley-Murray, "The Holy Spirit, Baptism, and The Body of Christ" Review and Expositor, 63 (Spr 1966); Schweitzer, art. "pneuma" TWNT, VI, p. 405 n. 563). Paul concludes this particular part of his argument by offering a second list, this time of persons rather then gifts (vs 28; Eph 4.11). Paul then discreetly places a period to this discussion by suggesting that the Corinthians "earnestly desire the higher gifts." (vs. 31)



II. I Corinthians 13 - The Manner of The Spirit (Agape)


In the 12th chapter, Paul bound the Church's thought of spiritual things to grace; in the 13th chapter Paul teaches the way in which the divine graces discussed in the 12th chp that the gifts are to be connected to love (agape). Love is a more basic and a less spectacular grace than all the others. Without it eh Christian graces are disgraced. Paul's first positive definition of Christian love is makrothunei (vs 4); Christian love is not so much emotional, passionate or fiery (thumos) as it is the "making broad, "the stretching out, the extension of fire (nahro-thunos). This "long suffering" should be compared with the superscripture of the 12th chp where the emotionalism of heathendom is contrasted with the sober confession of the Church (12.2-3). It is interesting to observe, that the spiritual pride or inflated sense of one's own spiritual experience ("puffed up", phusioun) which Paul saw as the peculiar affliction of the Corinthians higher life Christians (4.6,18,19; 8.1) appears in its negative in this passage; "love is. . . not phusioritai", vs. 4. Paul's description of love in chp 13 then, is not simple poetry; it is concrete apostolic application of truth to elements of a church in need of hearing what being Christian really meant.


In vs. 5 Paul says that love "does not seek its own (ou zetei ta heautes). This definition becomes important for the understanding the 14th chp, especially the 4th verse. The goal of Christian love is not seeking its own advancement. This brings the 13th chp into harmony with the 12th chp. Where we observed the diakonia and "common good" character and direction of the graces in Paul's definition. Graces too, like their modus vivendi love, "do not seek their own." They exist for the service of the body. Love challenges the higher way of spiritual experiences/for the individual. Love affirms the Church and her service in the world.


III. I Corinthians 14 - oikodonee is the goal of The Spirit


A.  14.1-3 - Paul encouraged the Corinthians to pursue the kind of life he has just described in chp 13. In vs. 1, Paul encourages them to participate in "thoughtful speech" on testimony rather than prophecy (vs 2). What gift does Paul prefer here? Paul contrasts intelligible testimony to unintelligible tongues:  "he who prophecies speaks to men for their up-building and encouragement and consolation." (vs.3). This important sentence defines prophecy as "up-building (oikodome) then becomes the theme of this chp (vss 3,4,5,12,17,26).  (Michel art. "oikodones" TWNT, V, p. 144). As the undivided Godhead is the source of graces (chp 12), and as love is the manner (chp 13), so up-building is their goal (chp 14). In Paul's thought the ultimate criterion for a gift of the Spirit is this: Does it up-build the Church? (Its spiritual growth and its evangelistic outreach).


B.   14. 4,19 - "He who speaks in a tongue edifies himself, but he who prophecies edifies the Church" (vs 4) Paul's sense of the comparative usefulness of the gifts of "mind words" and of "tongue words" is discussed in vs. 19. Paul counsels, "do not be children in your thinking" (vs 20)


C.  I4.20b - 25 - In the following discussion Paul's strongest consideration is set forth, the evangelist (vs 23).  (Note the OT quotation in vs. 21) Tongues are a divine "hardening instrument" (J. F. MacArthur, Jr., Charismatic Chaos (Zondervan, 1992. On the other hand, the missionary power of testimony is great (Jn 16.8-12). On the one hand (tongues) the impression made on the non-Christian could not be made unfavorable, he is hardened; on the other (testimony), the impression could not be more favorable, he is converted.  (Note the relationship of evangelist-missionary concern to the public use of spiritual gifts). Note also the congregational activity, I Cor14).


D.  14. 26-33 - In vs. 26 Paul emphasizes that "each" believer was to feel himself a vital and responsible participant in the congregation's life.  (1) not more than three; (2) in turn; and (3) with an interpreter. In vs. 29 Paul indicates that the critical faculty of the assembly was not to be held in obeyance when any gift, even the highest, was in use (cf. for the worship context see Johanns Hofingen, S.J. of Manila, Worship; The Life of Missions (Liturgical Studies, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1958).


E.   14. 33b-38 - Paul's final word on "Spiritual Things" is an exhortation "earnestly desire to prophesy". Did most of the trouble with tongue-speaking in Corinth come from women?


F.   14. 39-40 - Paul's final exhortation includes strict orders (I Thess 5.19-22). Paul's concern, then, in chp 14 is clear: the up-building of the Church. The problem in Corinth - tongue-speaking - Paul neither expressly forbids nor ever commends; but he places before the Corinthians in chp 14 these considerations:  (1) the larger churchly helpfulness (vss 1-19) and (2) the missionary preferability (vss 20-25) of the thoughtful and understanding shared world prophecy. Paul trusts that Christian agape with its concern for others will move the congregation to rethink the charismatic ministries in the meeting along the lines he has suggested so that all who come will receive maximum "up-building and encouragement and consolation" (vs 4).In these three chps Paul impressed upon the faith of the Corinthians that as the Spirit is united to Christ so the varied gifts of the Spirit are committed to the up-building of the body of Christ. The Triune God is the source, love is the way, and the up-building of the Church is the goal of the spiritual graces.


G.  I Corinthians 15.11 - What is the relationship of the Holy Spirit and the Resurrection? In 15.1-11 Paul reviews for the Corinthians the Apostolic gospel which he had preached to them (see my article, "Vocabulary of Preaching and Teaching in Acts" for Theology of Preaching and Theology of Promise) Conspicuous by its absence in this review is any reference to the Holy Spirit. The Apostolic gospel, according to Paul's definitive account here, circles around Jesus Christ. His death for our sins according to the Scriptures, His burial, His resurrection from the dead, and His appearance to the brethren and Apostles. There is apparently no "fuller" gospel with a doctrine of the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit is almost wholly "functional" and intentionally non-objective member of the trinity, purposely hidden behind and operative in the illumination of the gospel of the Son. The gospel of Christ is the full gospel. There is no gospel of the Holy Spirit.


IV. II Corinthians 10-13 - The Sphere of The Spirit


In these four chapters all that Paul says in both epistles finds it summation, its sharpest expression and, for our subject, the most pointed correspondence (cf. Dietes Georgi, Die Gegner des Paulus im 2. Korintherbrief: Studies zur religionsen Propaganda in der Spactantike ("WMANT" II Assen. Niederland: Neukinchener, Verlag, 1964).

Paul begins by entreating the Corinthians through "the meekness and gentleness of Christ." The entire second letter begins now to become clear: Paul lacked the evidence of power which the Corinthians, under the influence of their new teachers, were beginning to associate with the spiritual life. Throughout the Corinthian correspondence Paul alludes to oppression, trouble, and difficulty (II Cor 1.3-4; 4.7-12; 6.4-10; 7.5-6; 11.23 - 12.10; in I Cor 2.3; 4.8-13. Paul begins the second letter by referring to his affliction and suffering eight times in less than six verses (1.3-8), ending this introduction with the opinion, "We felt that we had received the sentence of death," and with the evaluation, "but that was to make us rely not on ourselves but on God who raises the dead." (1.9) The theology of Paul in II Cor is a "theology of death" (4.7) The absence of the power to avoid his difficulties, or the absence of impressiveness in his difficulties, was enough to make the Corinthians suspicious of Paul's full possession of the Spirit and now therefore increasingly to be suspicious of his apostleship (II Cor 4.7; 5.11-13; 10.2,4,10 - compare with heart religion of Methodism and the resurgent Pentecostalism).


In Paul's vivid description of the activity of his spiritual warfare in II Cor 10.3-5 the preposition huper and its "high" synonyms play an important role, as they do throughout the Corinthians correspondence (cf. I Cor 4.6 and in II Cor 10.5,14-16; 11.5,23; 12.6,7,11). Paul likens his enemies to high fortresses (hypoma) whose thoughts, like ramparts, exalt them above the one true experience of God (tes gnoseos tou theou).  (cf. note also the more gnostic pneumatic then philosophical-intellectual meaning of the related term "sophia - wisdom" as demonstrated recently by Wilckens' art. 'sophia' TWNT, VII 520-4; 523,27-49; compare Schmithal Gnosis in Korinth).


A.  II Cor 10.7-18 - Paul continues by comparing himself with the new attitude in Corinth (vs. 7; I Cor 1.12) Paul confronts his opponents by accusing them of boasting (kauchasthai, II Cor 10.8,13,17,18; note also huper is vss 14 and 16. Paul's boast is only in the work which God has given him to do and in God's blessings on that work. In vs. 18 Paul denies that he has overextended himself. Paul ends his introductory section with the same command by which he ended the introductory argument of his first epistles, "Let him who boasts boast of the Lord" (vs 17; I Cor 1.3D. Only those who do what the Lord commands, not those with spiritual experience, are blessed.


B.   II Cor 11 - The Quest for More and Paul's Solus Christus. Paul begins his foolishness theme (11.1 - 12.10) First Paul expresses a divine jealousy for the Corinthians, vs 2.


1. 11.1-4 - Paul expresses his disappointment in the Corinthian submission to visiting missionaries (II Cor 11.4). This verse is one of the most important texts in the Corinthians correspondence. It places a wide-angled lens over the Corinthian theology of the higher life taught by Paul's influential opponents in Corinth. It was a theology of "another Jesus" a "different Spirit" and a "different gospel" and the Corinthians were willing "to submit to it." (On the Christology of Paul's opponents in Corinth see Georgi Gegner, pp. 15, 290).


2. In two respects, the Spirit and the gospel, the Corinthians teachers understood themselves as differing from Paul (pneuma heteran. . . euaggelion heteron (I Cor 4.8; II Cor 4.12). Clearly they were asking, "have we not received the Spirit and Gospel in a fuller measure than Paul?"


3. II Cor 11.4 indicates that the higher teachers come talking about the same general subjects as Paul - Jesus, Spirit, Gospel, but with a more advanced understanding than Paul. They had experienced Jesus, the Spirit and the Gospel in a fuller way (cf. resurgent Pentecostalism).


4. II Cor 11.5-15 - Here Paul calls these new evangelists superlative apostles. They were superlative to Paul because they had gone beyond him (II Cor 11.5). After discussing financial matters briefly (vss. 7-2)Paul calls these "sham apostles" (pseudapostoloi) and crooked in all their practices, masquerading as apostles of Christ" (11.13)


5. II 11.16-21 - After touching the "fool theme" again in vss 16-19, Paul offers one more picture of his higher-life opponents.


6. II Cor 11. 21b-33 - Now in a sustained passage Paul commences at last his "foolishness", his boasting (cf. 11.1; 10.8). Paul seems to suggest that discoursing on his exploits was repugnant to him (11.21,23; 12.11). His opponents had boasted of their spiritual (and Jewish) background, so can Paul (11.22). They boasted of being special missionaries of Christ and Paul exerts himself and says "I am a better one (huper ego). I am talking like a mad man." (11.23) For an extended discussion of the opponents' self-designation, see Georgi Gegner, pp. 31-82 and for the meaning of diakonos (missionary) see in particular, ibid., pp. 31-38.) Paul continues to count his painful trophies (vss 24-29) in a way that reveals Paul's greatness as surely as it must have lashed his reader’s consciences. Paul prefers appearing comical to appearing super (vss 32-3). Compare with Pentecostalism interpretation (II Cor 11. 32-33).


7. II Cor 12 - The Quest for Power and Paul's Sola Gratia:


Now Paul (in 12.1-6) addresses a special question. Had Paul ever had a special spiritual experience since becoming a Christian? Specifically, had he ever had visions or revelations as they had had? Now Paul grammatically shifts person. By using the anonymous third person, "a man", Paul removes his own person from the immediate consideration. The Corinthian high-life teachers, in their demotion of the body in the interest of the Spirit, had made much of being completely transported out of their bodies by their spiritual experience. Paul purposely confesses ignorance (vss 2-4). This was the extent of Paul's spiritual experience. He goes no further. This is all that Paul will tell the curious and miracle-hungry Corinthians.


Paul's vision, in which he neither describes what he saw, relates what he heard, or details what he felt or thought, constitutes a rebuke of the first order to those in Corinth who cultivated marvelous spiritual experiences for public consumption. Paul changes from the third to the first person and must return fourteen years later to relate an experience in the life of "a man in Christ" and indicates eloquently that he had no ordinary or everyday vision. When Paul boasts of experiences, he prefers to boast of his defeated experiences such as imprisonments, beatings, anxieties, or embarrassments (11.23-33). Paul had placed his lowest experiences first (12.7-10).


One can only guess what this thorn, this messenger of Satan was. Three times Paul besought the Lord to take the problem from him (vs 9). Paul learned that what was required is God's grace (vs 9). Paul learned that grace was not simply a first blessing, succeeded by a second one. Paul was not told how to go beyond mere grace. Power, the divine answer, to Paul, comes not through overcoming weakness but through bearing it. Paul's answer came from God's grace (my boast, kauchesomai) (vs 9; II Cor 4.2). Radical present weakness is the sphere of Christ's royal power. Paul ends the verse with "Hence, I am well content for Christ's sake,with weakness, contempt (hubresin). Paul's Corinthian opponents (?), persecution, hardship, and frustration; for when I am weak (present tense), then I am strong (also present tense).


In this classic discussion of power in the New Testament, it is remarkable that there is no reference to the Holy Spirit. This is because Grace is sufficient!!


8. 12.11-21 - Paul had played the fool by talking liberally of his spiritual experience. The Corinthians should have commended him without his foolishness. Paul then claims that he is not behind these super apostles in any way (vs 11b). Through the interesting contrast in this verse (cf. II Cor 11.5) between behind (husteresa) and huperlian) beyond, we get an even more accurate description of Paul's opponents. They are "further apostles." But however far their "further life" extends, Paul claims to be behind them in nothing at all. Paul claims that he is not behind them in anything - Jesus, the Spirit or the gospel, power, victory, or holiness.


Paul then takes up what appears to be another phrase of the superlative teachers, "the signs of the apostles" and he uses it in the third person passive - "the signs of a true apostle were performed among you in all patience, with signs and wonders and mighty works" (vs 12). Paul does not deny miracles to his opponents; he does not say what these were (I Cor 2.4; Rom 15.19) (Note that in the Old Testament the great prophets themselves tell none of their own miraculous deeds, though they could perform miracles.)


We will not be far wrong on assuming that Paul talks only reluctantly of signs at all, for he had himself earlier written that "Jews demand signs and the Greeks seek wisdom, but we preach Christ crucified which is a stumbling block" (I Cor 1.22-23). In spite of the Corinthian spiritualist claim to higher life-style, there is quarreling, jealousy, anger, selfishness, slander, gossip, conceit (phusioseis, this word in I Cor 4.6; 8.1; 13.4), and disorder (see this word at I Cor 14.33)." These sins are a consequence of their super-spirituality.


But the sins of the spiritual sort, finally, are not guarantees for the absence of their erotic companions as indicated by the fear Paul expresses that the "impurity, immorality and licentiousness" which used to find a home in many in Corinth may not have been repented of (vs. 21).




9. II Cor 13 - The Quest for Evidence and Paul's Sola Fides


Paul fears his severity when he comes to Corinth. This severity, Paul insists, will be the evidence that Christ is in him. The evidence will not be any special spiritual proof such as they are now seeking from him in Corinth, "since you desire proof that Christ is speaking in me." (13.3) This is one of the most interesting phrases in the letter for our subject. The Corinthians wanted "proof" (dokime, the English word for documentation), evidence, that Christ could really speak through Paul (cf. Schmithal's "everything depended upon giving themselves and others an evidence of the Spirit who indwells them" (Gnosis in Korinth, p. 141); Paul's opponent in Corinth believed and taught that "tongue-speaking was "the manifestation of ecstatic religiosity", ibid, p. 142).


Paul once more declares that power is weakness (vs 4; II Cor 12.9-10; 4.7; 10-12). Paul is confident of exhibiting this strength in his pending visit to Corinth (vs. 4b). Then Paul goes on the offensive. He tells the Corinthians (yourselves 3 times in vs. 5).  "Examine yourselves to see whether you are holding to your faith. Test yourselves.  Do you not realize (Gk. adds "yourselves") that Christ is in you? Unless you fail to meet the test." The test Paul suggests is "Are you in the faith?" More specifically, for their standing in the objective Christian faith of the gospel.


Paul ends the II Corinthian letter with a prayer by which as in his entire correspondence, he links in union that which in Corinth was being parceled and apportioned but which he can see only whole:  "The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all."  (vs 14) Schlatter's conclusion to 'the Corinthians theology' declares that "the self-centered conception of faith which understand faith as participation in God's power by which one is brought higher life, .  . a desire to be bound to the exalted Christ without appreciating God's grace in the crucified one, a filling with the Spirit . . . which blessed one with one's own greatness, . . all this was in the deepest sense un-Pauline as it was also un-Johannine and un-apostolic. Korinthische Theologie, pp. 123-124.


Everywhere one turns in II Corinthians one finds not only a superceded gnosticism but, we are obliged to believe in anticipated Pentecostalism.  From the pride of power (II Cor 10), through the fuller ministry of Jesus, Spirit and gospel (II Cor 11) and the unusual interest in visions and higher experiences (II Cor 12), to the quest for oral evidence (II Cor 13), we are in similar spiritual topography. The features most prominent in the first century Corinthians are found to correspond to a remarkable degree with the features most distinctly present in 20th century Pentecostalism.


Paul's approach to his problem is thoroughly Christocentric.  His strategy is to bring the Church's every thought into captivity to obedience to Christ (II Cor 10.1-6)). To have all subsequent boasting in only the Lord (10.17), tc have his Church engaged with a single-hearted devotion to one husband, aven to Christ (11.2), and consequently not to bear with any teaching of "another" and more striking one miraculous Jesus, or of a quite "different," deeply filling Spirit, or of a "different," fuller gospel (11.4; I Cor 12-14; II Cor 10-13).


The Corinthians must become more Churchly, more committed to the Church (I Cor 12-14).  It is impossible at the same time to love the head and hate the body (I Cor 13; chp 14). In a word, Paul wants to turn the eyes of the Corinthians from the spirit of huper which boasts, to the spirit of agape which builds.  If the Corinthians problem is in any way typical of problems in the early Church, then the vaunted power and purity of the primitive church is really not much to boast about. The Church, from its start, has been full of problems because it has been full of people.


The Corinthian letters are a sustained attempt to formulate what Luther later called a "theologie crucis, a theology of the cross. Hidden in the cross and weakness, corporate and individual, and revealed in the Church to faith is resurrection power.  "When. . .weak, then. . .strong." (II Cor 12.10).


The Churches' no less than Pentecostal need is to hear the message of the Corinthian letters as we speed toward century 21. The message the Spirit says in I and II Corinthians is responsible and Christocentric.




A. Outstanding Works:


Bruner, Frederick D.  A Theology of the Holy Spirit. Eerdmans, 1970.

Carson, D. A. Showing The Spirit. Baker Book House, 1987, pb.

Heron, Alasdair I.C. The Holy Spirit. The Westminster Press, 1983, pb.

Jorstad, Erling, ed. The Holy Spirit in Today's Church. Abingdon Press, 1973.

Martin, Ralph P. The Spirit and The Congregation. Eerdmans, 1984.


B. Recent and Contemporary Works:


Camfield, F. W., Revelation and The Holy Spirit. An Essay in Barthian Theology. London: Elliot Stock, 1933.

Green, M.  I Believe in The Holy Spirit. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1975.

Jungel, E. The Doctrine of The Trinity: God's Being is in Becoming. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1976.

Rung, H. and Moltmann, J. (ed.). Conflicts About The Holy Spirit. Concilium 128 (1979).

Moltmann, J. The Trinity and The Kingdom of God. London: S.C.M. Press, 1981.

Rahner, K. The Trinity. London: Burns & Oates, 1970.

Toon, P. and Spiceland, J. (ed.).  One God in Trinity.  An Analysis of the primary dogma of Christianity. London: Samuel Bagster, 1980.

Welch, C. The Trinity in Contemporary Theology.  London: S.C.M. Press, 1953.


C. Commentaries on I Corinthians:


Barrett, C. K. The First Epistle to_ the Corinthians. Harper-Black Commentaries. NY: Harper & Row, 1968.

Bruce, F. F.  1 and 2 Corinthians. New Century Bible. London: Marshall, Morgan & Scott, 1971; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980.

Conzelmann, H.  I Corinthians.  Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1975.

Godet, Frederic. Commentary ori St. Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians. ET Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1886-87.

Gering, J. The First Epistle of Saint Paul of the Corinthians. ET London: Epworth Press, 1962.

Moffatt, J. The First Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1938.

Morris, L.  I Corinthians. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries.  London: Tyndale Press, 1963.

Thrall, M. E. I and II Corinthians.  Cambridge Bible Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965.


D. Other Works:


Atter, Gordon F. The Third Force.  Peterborough, Ont: The College Press, 1962.

Aune, David E. Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World. Eerdmans, 1983.

Brumback, Carl. God in Three Persons. Cleveland, TN: Pathway Press, 1959.

Champion, Richard (ed.). Our Mission in Today's World: Council on Evangelism " Official Papers and Reports.  Springfield, MO: Gospel Pub. House, 1968.

Crone, T. M. Early Christian Prophecy: A Study of Its Origin and Function. Baltimore: St. Mary's University Press, 1973.

DePlessis, David J.  "A Brief History of Pentecostal Movements." Unpublished Notebook, 1959).

Ellis, E. Earle. Prophecy and Hermeneutic.  Eerdmans, 1978.

Fee, Gordon.  "Hermeneutics and Historical Precedent—A Major Problem in Pentecostal Hermeneutics" in Perspectives in The New Pentecostalism. Ed. By Russell Spittler, Baker Books, 1976, pp. 118-32.

Gee, Donald. Concerning Spiritual Gifts; .A Series of Bible Studies, 2d rev. ed. Springfield, MO: Gospel Pub. House, 1947.

Harper, Michael.  As at the Beginning: The 20th Century Pentecostal Revival. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1965.

Hemphill, K. S.  "The Pauline Concept of Charisma:  A Situational and Developmental Approach." Ph.D dissertaiton, Cambridge University, 1976.

Johnson, Sherman E. "Paul in the Wicked City of Corinth." Lexington Theological Quarterly 17 (1982):59-67.

Kendrick, Klaude. The Promise Fulfilled; A History of the Modern Pentecostal Movement. Springfield, MO: Gospel Pub. House, 1961.

MacDonald, Wm. G. Glossolalia in the NT. Springfield, MO: Gospel Pub. House, 1964. MacGorman, Jack W. The Gifts of the Spirit; An Exposition of I Corinthians 12-14. Nashville: Broadman, 1974.

Murphy-O'Connor, J. St. Paul's Corinth. Texts and Archaeology. Wilmington, Delaware: M. Glazier, Inc., 1983.

Pagard, Ken. "American Baptists and the Holy Spirit," Acts, 1 (1969), 21-15. Paraclete: A Journal Concerning the Person and Work of the Holy Spirit, 1967ff.

Pearson, B.A. The Pneumatikos—Psychikos Terminology in I Corinthians. Missoula, MT: SBL Monograph series, 1973.

Rutheven, Jon. "The Cessation of the Charismata," Paraclete, 3 (Spring 1969), 23- 30, (Summer 1969), 21-27.

Schutz, J. H. Paul and the Anatomy of Apostolic Authority. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.

Schweizer, Eduard.  "pneuma." In The Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Vol. 6. ET Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1968.

Smith, D. Moody.  "Glossolalia and Other Spiritual Gifts in a NT Perspective." Interpretation 28 (1974): 307-20.

Theissen, Gerd. The Social Setting of Pauline Christianity; Essays on Corinth. ET Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1982.

Thiselton, A. C.  "The 'Interpretation' of Tongues." Journal of Theological Studies 30 (1979): 15-36.

Usami, K.  "How are the Dead Raised?" Biblica 51 (1976): 468-93.

Vorster, W.S., ed. The Spirit in Biblical Perspective. Pretoria: University of South Africa, 1980.

Williams, Cyril G. Tongues of the Spirit: A Study of Pentecostal Glossolalia and Related Phenomena. Cardiff: Cardiff University Press, 1981.

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Wocum, Bruce. Prophecy; Exercising the Prophetic Gifts of the Spirit in the Church Today. Ann Arbor: Servant, 1976.



Dr. James Strauss


Lincoln Christian Seminary