MANIFESTOS IN CONFLICT
A. Christian Manifesto - Matthew 28
B. Communist Manifesto
C. Mao's Little Red Book
D. Humanist Manifesto II - Several humanist organizations are starting the first school in North America to train humanist leaders to combat what they see as a rising opposition to "secular humanism." "In a time when religious fundamentalism is on the rise, with its assault on secular humanism, this school and center will provide an alternative focus for an increasing number of Americans and Canadians," the committee said.
"Know thyself" - Gnothi Seauton (Oracle of Delphi)
"Knowledge of God" - Da'ath Elohim
"Man is the proper object of study" - Pope's Essay on Man
"Man the measure" - Protagorous
"Cursed is everyone who places his hope in man" - Augustine
Feuerback's Heidelberg lectures of 1848 affirms aim was to convert "the friends of God into friends of man, believers into thinkers, worshippers into workers, candidates for the other world into students of this world Christians who are, on their own confession, half-animal, and half-angel, into men—whole men." - M. Novak, Belief and Unbelief (NY: New American Library) 1965, p. 151.
"Grace does not 'destroy nature but perfects it,' can be assumed to be a basic tenet of Christian humanism." - Aquinas
As the American historian Professor Edward P. Cheyney says. Humanism has meant many things: "It may be the reasonable balance of life that the early Humanists discovered in the Greeks; it may be merely the study of the humanities or polite letters; it may be the freedom from religiosity and the vivid interest in all sides of life of a Queen Elizabeth or a Benjamin Franklin; it may be the responsiveness to all human passions of a Shakespeare or a Goethe; or it may be a philosophy of which man is the center and sanction. It is in the last sense, elusive as it is, that Humanism has had perhaps its greatest significance since the sixteenth century." (Encyclopedia of Social Science, V, p. 541.)
The term humanism has a number of distinctive and contradictory meanings, all referring to a World View in some manner centered on man rather than on God (i.e. Supernatural).
Five Major Functions of Worldviews
The survival of any society depends on its maintenance of commonality, or, to borrow Hannah Arendt's phrase—"consensus universalis"—common language, traditions, values, interests, goals, and assumptions about human existence (agents of socialization).
Cultures patterns, perceptions of reality into conceptualizations of what reality can or should be, what is to be regarded as actual, probable, possible, and impossible. These conceptualizations form what is termed the "worldview" of the culture. The worldview is the central systematization of conceptions of reality to which the members of the culture assent (largely unconsciously) and from which stems their value system. The worldview lies at the very heart of culture, touching, interacting with, and strongly influencing every other aspect of the culture. A people's worldview is their basic model of reality. Five major functions are:
1. The first function is the explanation of how and why things got to be as they are and how and why they continue or change. The worldview embodies for a people, whether explicitly or implicitly, the basic assumptions concerning ultimate things on which they base their lives. If the worldview conditions people to believe that the universe is operated by a number of invisible personal forces largely beyond their control, this will affect both their understanding of and their response to "reality." If, however, a worldview explains that the universe operates by means of a large number of impersonal, cause-and-effect operations which, if learned ty people, can be employed by them to control the universe, the attitude of these people toward "reality" will be much different.
2. The worldview of a people serves an evaluational (a judging and validating) function. The basic institutions, values, and goals of a society are ethnocentrically evaluated as best and, therefore, sanctioned by the worldview of their culture or subculture. . . .It is by their God or gods that most people understand their worldview and their culture as a whole to be validated. . . All important and valued behavior, . . . whether classified as economic, political, scientific, social, educational or whatever, is judged in terms of a culture's worldview assumptions, beliefs, values, meanings, and sanctions.
3. The worldview of a group also provides psychological reinforcement for that group. At points
of anxiety or crisis in life it is to one's conceptual system that one turns for the encouragement to continue or the stimulus to take other actions. These times all tend to heighten anxiety or in some other way require adjustment between behavior and belief, and each tends to be dealt with in a reinforcing way by the worldview of a society. Often this reinforcement takes the form of ritual or ceremony in which many people participate ... In such ways the worldview of a group provides security and support for the behavior of the group in a world that appears to be filled with capricious uncontrollable forces.
4. The worldview of a culture or subculture serves an integrating function. It systematizes and orders for them their perceptions of reality into an overall design. In these terms, a people conceptualizes what reality should be like and understands and interprets the multifarious events to which they are exposed. Thus in all these functions, worldview lies at the heart of a culture, providing the basic model for bridging the gap between the "objective" reality outside people's heads and the culturally agreed upon perception of that reality inside their heads.
5. A group's worldview does not completely determine the perception of all its members at all times. Though there is characteristically a" very high degree of conservatism to such conceptualization, there is change in this as well as in all other areas of culture. Thus over a period of time groups such as the ancient Hebrews moved from belief in many gods to a strong concept of (Monotheism (Kautzsch, 1904). Likewise, large segments of western culture have moved through Renaissance, Industrial Revolution, and American Frontierism from a belief in the supremacy of the Judaeo-Christian God to a belief in the actual or potential all-sufficiency of the technological human. Ordinarily such conceptual transformation takes place slowly. Sometimes, though, the pressure for rapid change is great. Particularly in the face of such pressure we observe a fifth function of a people's worldview, which relates directly to the more disintegrative aspects of culture change. That function may be labeled adaptational. People, by adjusting their worldviews, devise means for resolving conflict and reducing cultural dissonance... If a society gets into ideological difficulty "it may be far easier to reinterpret values than to reorganize society." (Wallace, 1966:29) Charles H. Kraft, Christianity in Culture Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1979), pp. 53ff.
18 Presuppositions of Humanists' Worldview
Many kinds of humanism exist in the contemporary world. The varieties and emphases of naturalistic humanism include "scientific," "ethical," "democratic," "religious," and "Marxist" humanism. Humanism traces its roots from ancient China, classical Greece and Rome, through the Renaissance and the Enlightenment, to the scientific revolution of the modern world... Many within religious groups, believing in the future of humanism, now claim humanist credentials.
1. In the best sense, religion may inspire dedication to the highest ethical ideals.
2. Promises of immortal salvation or fear of eternal damnation are both illusory and harmful. They distract humans from present concerns, from self-actualization, and from rectifying social injustices.
3. We affirm that moral values derive their source from human experience. Ethics is autonomous and situational, needing no theological or ideological sanction.
4. Reason and intelligence are the most effective instruments that humankind possesses. The controlled use of scientific methods. . .must be extended further in the solution of human problems.
5. The preciousness and dignity of the individual person is central humanist value. Individuals should be encouraged to realize their own creative talents and desires. We reject all religious, ideological, or moral codes that denigrate the individual, suppress freedom, dull intellect, dehumanize personality.
6. In the area of sexuality, we believe that intolerant attitudes, often cultivated by orthodox religions and puritanical cultures, unduly repress sexual conduct.
7. To enhance freedom and dignity the individual must experience a full range of civil liberties in all societies.
8. We are committed to an open and democratic society. We must extend participatory democracy in its true sense to the economy, the school, the family, the workplace, and voluntary associations.
9. The separation of church and state and the separation of ideology and state are imperative. The state should encourage maximum freedom for different moral, political, religious, and social values in society.
10. Humane societies should evaluate economic systems not by rhetoric or ideology, but by whether or not they increase economic well-being for all individuals and groups, minimize poverty and hardship, increase the sum of human satisfaction, and enhance the quality of life.
11. The principle of moral equality must be furthered through elimination of all discrimination based upon race, religion, sex, age, or national origin.
12. We deplore the division of humankind on rationalistic grounds.
13. This world community must renounce the resort to violence and force as a method of solving international disputes.
14. The world community must engage in cooperative planning concerning the use of rapidly depleting resources. We must free our world from needless pollution and waste, . . .
15. The problems of economic growth and development can no longer be resolved by one nation alone; they are worldwide in scope. ... World poverty must cease. Hence extreme disproportions in wealth, income, and economic growth should be reduced on a worldwide basis.
16. Technology is a vital key to human progress and development.
17. We must expand communication and transportation across frontiers. Travel restrictions must cease.
18. The world cannot wait for a reconciliation of competing political or economic systems to solve its problems. These are the times for men and women of goodwill to further the building of a peaceful and prosperous world.
Western Humanism's classical origins derive from Petrarch (cf. his Christus est Deus noster, Cicero autem princeps nostri eloquii), the real founder of humanism, who appealed to Cicero and his efforts to humanize the Roman virtues by means of Greek music, mathematics, metaphysics, and especially literature, which was regarded as the model in both form and content, and thus produce the virtues of philanthropy, tolerance, and wisdom. To be (become) civilized, cultured was to be truly human (cf. Grace/Salvation in Christ).
Humanism as the conscious effort to justify the Renaissance arose in the 14/15th centuries as an intellectual movement among the nobility, especially the merchant aristocracy of the Italian city-states. A fundamental assumption of this movement was that the arties liberates were essential, if man was to be transformed, i.e. civilized.
An appreciable stimulus was given to humanism by the confrontation of the Western intellectual world with the original texts of Greek philosophy, to which it was introduced at the Union Council of Ferrara-Florence (1438), and most clearly after the fall of Constantinople (1453). This encounter was crucial for the Platonic Academy of Florence (cf. Giovanni della Mirandola, and Marsilio Ficino) which ultimately introduced the new intellectual attitude into the universities.
By the time of Erasmus of Rotterdam (cf. his Philosophia Christi) humanism finally dominated the cultured world of Europe.
The Humanist movement led to the intensification of linguistic and literary education in the studia humanitatis but also opened the way to a fresh start in natural philosophy, historical research, political theory and practice. (See my Christian Faith and the Development of the Physical Sciences; Christian Faith and Biological Theories; Christian Faith and The Social Sciences; Christian Faith and Economic/Political Theories; Christian Faith and Theories of Law; Christian Faith and Theories of Language; Christian Faith and Theories of History). The abandonment of the Scholastic Synthesis of Christianity and Greek philosophy (God: Creator/Redeemer; Man in the Imago Dei; Creation - as absolute origin of finite reality; Consummation of Creation - as absolute attainment of God's purpose for creation and man; Grace as essential to Humanness, etc.) and relegating this synthesis (Faith/Reason/ Revelation/Knowledge) to the status of a "middle age" between classical and modem eras. (This threefold scheme was first set forth by Flavio Biondi). Thus, Renaissance Humanism posed afresh the problem of reconciling the 'autonomous culture of classical paganism' with the Christian culture based on revelation. This effort to fuse up with Plato, the Stoa and Cicero, which had already been made by Origen, was intended not to provide a system but to point to a certain means of self-education as the divinely willed preparation for human advancement (cf. Education vs. Salvation; Providence vs. Progress - 1859).
The Enlightenment Humanists reached hack behind Scholasticism to the authentic (Greek authentikos (source)- originating or sources of the Christian faith), i.e. original biblical texts and thus paved the way for The Reformation. Here we must take note of a crucial influence—the ambivalent relationship between itself and an autonomous religious or theological approach. The absolute confidence, grounded in the Bible, of the Reformers was based upon a sense of being laid hold of by God's word (see I Jn 5.4ff in Post Reformation commentaries) and not upon a linguistic, aesthetic interest in the Bible, is in marked tension with the humanist basis in a scholarship of an aesthetic trend, and with correspondingly conciliatory diplomatic view of religion (cf. Luther's controversy with Erasmus over Free Will, i.e. Freedom and Grace). As an independent movement Humanism ended with the Reformation.
Humanism and Controversy
The ensuing theological controversies left no room for any neutral ground of esoteric neo-classical intellectual culture. Luther's 'two kingdoms' thesis, Calvin's Stoic humanism as handmaid of the new theology, Melanchthon' s humanistic Aristotelianism as frame work for Lutheran dogmatics, and on the Roman Catholic side, the use made of humanist education in the baroque scholasticism of the Jesuits are classical attempts to relate reason and revelation, faith and knowledge, etc.
Scientific Revolution and Secularism
By the 17th/18th centuries intellectual revolutions of staggering complexity shook Christian Europe. The ensuing Enlightenment was man's efforts at interpreting the entire universe without reference to the biblical God (cf. Kant/Goethe). After the first scientific revolution (Galileo/Newton) the philosophical and theological problem of humanism is how to reconcile autonomous self-understanding with the understanding imposed on man by revelation. Man's autonomy was assumed after the 'creation' of the 'scientific method' and mathematics to interpret the mechanical movement of nature (cf. matter/motion/mathematics/and method). Afterwards the criterion was 'autonomous reason' rather than either the ideal of ancient humanitas or Christian revelation/authority (see my Idolatrous Absolutes: Crisis in Truth/Authority). No longer was Christian Europe to settle knowledge claim disputes by either faith or authority (cf. Deism, Atheism, Revolution).
Kant and Newton
As early as Leasing, and still more in Kant and the transition; to Hegelianism (German idealism) now became preoccupied with the study of the human spirit in action (vs. God-Bible), of the "practical reason" as the sphere of religion and the judge of its truth, i.e. of its compatibility with responsible self-understanding, (cf. Winckelmann, Herder, Schiller, Goethe, and F. Schlegel? Pantheism/Panentheism, Romanticism, Nature-Philosophie, Existentialism, Phenomenology, Marxian, Freudianism and Classical Liberalism).
Humanism and The Two Cultures: Sciences and Humanities
Humboldt and Wiethammer (coined the term Humanism in 1808; see my The Christian Faith and the Enlightenment for Kant's classical definition) set forth a humanistic educational model in opposition to the utilitarian movement, which affirmed that education was designed to produce functionaries for society. "Enlightenment is the liberation of man's self-imposed tutelage. Tutelage is the incapacity of using one's own understanding except under the direction of another." (Kant, 1784) This pragmatic emphasis is reflected in every 'practical' thrust into the 20th century. It has its major source in J. Dewey's trade school mentality (cf. Restoration Heritage on Educational Models).
The Myth of Neutrality and Three Faces of Humanism
During the period between the World Wars (see Jaeger and Kerenyi) there was a new flowering of enthusiasm for Humanism. Three influential new forms of the 'gospel of man's complete self-realization' are: (1) Marxist Humanism, (2) Existentialist Humanism, and (3) Eastern Cosmic Humanism.
Before briefly analyzing these forms of unbelief we must acknowledge that "... something enormous has happened to Western man. His outlook on life and the world has changed so radically that in the perspective of history the 20th century is likely to rank with the 4th century, which signaled the dawn of modern science, as one of the very few that have instigated genuinely new epochs in human thought. ... Thus far the odyssey of Western man has carried him through three great configurations of such basic assumptions. The first constituted the Graeco-Roman ... outlook which flourished up to the 4th century A.D ... this ... outlook was replaced by the Christian worldview which proceeded to dominate Europe until the 17th century. The rise of modern science inaugurated a third important way of looking at things ... 'the Modern Mind.' It now appears that this modern outlook ... is being replaced by what has come to be spoken of as the Post-Modern Mind. The reason for suspecting that this ... outlook has had its day ... is that frontier thinkers are no longer sure that reality is ordered and orderly. If it is, they are not sure that man's mind is capable of grasping its order. Combining the two doubts, we can define the Post-Modern Mind as one which, haying lost the conviction that reality is personal, has come to question whether it is ordered in a way that man's reason can lay bare. ..." (Huston Smith, Beyond the Post-Modern Mind).
Humanism, Freedom and Man's Self-Realization
A second critical issue is the relationship between man's supposed capacity, via science and technology, to create the good society and freedom. If man is not free, then he is not responsible, either to self, society, nature, or social interfacings. The denial of God is not the principal thesis of Humanism; it is rather the affirmation of man as creator in freedom. For all forms of modern and contemporary humanisms, the full-blown reality of man is incompatible with the existence of God as they have come to understand its implications in the light of their experience within a Christian faith context (L. Dewart, The Future of Belief, NY: Herder & Herder, 1968, esp. 52ff). Atheism occurs as the postulate of their humanism and one of The Signs of the Times (Marxist Humanism, Secular Humanist, cf. The Humanist and The Humanist Manifesto, compare with Schaeffer's Christian Manifesto). J. P. Van Praag, chairman of the International Humanist and Ethical Union, attempts to define "Humanist Outlook" on the assumption that 'Humanism' only makes sense when it is clearly set apart from religious creeds and therefore from anything like a Christian Humanism.' The fundamental orientation is constituted by a moral conviction based on the strictly human. It relies on man's resources alone to realize what is characteristic of our common humanity. Humanism not only makes man central, it posits him as the only foundations of his own existence, excluding any recourse to the 'divine.' Another characteristic of our humanistic age is secularism.
Secularism: Loss of Transcendence
a. Saeculum in Christian Latin meant generation, age, the world, esp. as opposed to the Church. Belonging to the world and its affairs as distinguished from the Church and religion; civil, lay, temporal. Often used in negative sense of hostility toward God, Church, etc. (see Oxford English Dictionary Vol. IX, S-Soldo, Oxford, 1933, p. 365f).
b. Secularization is "the loss in social significance of the Christian supra-empirical definition of reality." (L. Laeyendicker, "A Sociological Approach to Secularization" Concilium, Roger Aubert (ed.) NY: Paulist Press, 1969).
c. Secularization is "The deliverance of man first from religious and then from metaphysical control over his reason and his language." C.A. van Peursen (H. Cox, The Secular City, NY: Maonillan, 1965, p. 1.).
d. Secularization "The process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols." (P. Berger, The Sacred Canopy, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1969, p. 107).
Christian Faith in a Secularized World—Alice's Restaurant and Fiddler on The Roof.
Implications of Secularism: Lordship of Christ and Heresy of Sacred/Secular Polarization (Col 1.17; Eph 1.10) "What some consider secularization is in reality a dymythologization of the God of the past, a neutralization of the earth on which we live, and the growing realization of the inherent dignity of man." (H. Bbrfanann, "Primitive Man: The Poet and the Believer" Concilium vol. 47, pp. 11-17)
Man's understanding of this neutralization of the earth was placed in sharp focus by the OT monotheistic idea of God and creation, the Thomistic idea of the world, and the advancement of modern science (see Christian Faith and the Development of the Physical Sciences and R. Niebuhr's, Radical Monotheism).
Perhaps the world has never been totally sacralized; moreover, there is no evidence that we will move to a totally desacralized world." (Joseph Camblin, "Secularization: Myths and Real Issues" Concilium, vol. 47, p. 129.).
The Neo-Marxist Liberation movements attempt to affirm Marx's Humanism rather than his atheistic materialism (see my critical evaluation in Journal for Christian Studies, Oct 1983 "Marx's World-View"). Marxist humanism regards itself as such in virtue of its hope in man's complete realization of all given possibilities, the thorough penetration of matter by the spirit being seen as the medium of man's self-realization (see M. Adier's Ideas of Freedom, 2 vols.). Fusing humanism with political economy modern Marxism (cf. Pan-Soviet sources, e.g.s. R. Garaudy and E. Bloch) represents man as his own creator in the sense that all objective reality, including man's own reality, is simply the product of his own labor. Division of labor determines the task, i.e. the removal of dehumanizing alienation (see my Atheism and Alienation) of the subject from the objective world, thus acquiring a medium of mutual affirmation. Humanism thus becomes the successful implementation of "the ways of life through which the inward can become outward and the outward the inward" (Bloch). Therefore Marxist humanism becomes social policy which creates the "total" man. But one looks in vain for this 'total man' in the Marxist orbits of the world, (cf. Adorno/Horkheimer convert the methodological principle of critical de-ideologization into a new ideology).
Sartre's view of ontological freedom removes man from any external norms (cf. Situation Ethics/Ethical Relativism when in Rome). According to Heidegger (Brief uber den Hunanianus), true humanism is allowing oneself to be opened up to the 'thereness' of being to the 'realm of the coming of the wholly sound.' But we are still searching for one concrete example of whole person who practices Existential Humanism. Our cultural chaos of the 60's, 70's, and 80's derives from this darkened humanism. The term 'secular humanism' expresses a human effort to create new life, society, etc. by excluding belief in the existence of the Christian God.
Eastern religions are based in panentheistic metaphysics. Eastern Cosmic Humanism is hostile to language, history, and historical truth. The west has progressively become more open to Eastern thought since the publication of Hegel's Phenomenology (see my Modern and Contemporary Philosophy for analysis of Hegel).
Immanent within all men is the capacity to transform the self and society, according to both Buddhism and Hinduism. Note the Eastern metaphysics in the Death and Dying movement.
We have briefly sketched a history of the multiple meanings of the term Humanism. Some Evangelicals seem to identify the Humanist Movement with a very small segment of the International Humanists association. This is unfortunate and misleading.
The Fundamentals of Humanism
This movement denies God's existence and thus has radically reinterpreted the biblical perspective which affirms that God 'created man in His own image' (Gen 1-3). In its place man has created god in his image, a plastic image malleable to science, technology and education directed by two naturalistically oriented gurus, Piaget and Kohlberg. See Foundations of Humanism, by Dr. J. P. van Praag, Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1982.
I hesitate to speak of 'Christian Humanism,' but for our brief purpose, I shall forgo restraint, (cf. Jacques Maritain, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin) The Christian view of man is inseparable from the biblical view of God, creation, Man in the imago dei, sin as reducible to social, economical, political, psychological features of human existence, and the salvation through Christ is the sole source of the transformation of man (Acts 4.12). Man's humanity is available through the true humanitas of God.
There is no Christus Victor in humanism, no victory over sin and death. (See my Three Faces of Death; Sin and Salvation; Historiographical Revolution and The Resurrection; and The Ward of God). Only the Christian Gospel can sustain human hope in our Time of Abandonment, (cf The Revelation' central thesis is hope, yet the Greek word elpis does not appear in the text.)
The Origins of Humanism:
Humanist (The), pub bimonthly by American Humanist Assoc, Yellow Springs, OH, 1941-1968; Buffalo, since 1968.
International Humanist and Ethical Union (The) and its member organizations, Utrecht, 1974.
Literary Guide (The) and Rationalist Review, London, 1885-1956; continued as Humanist (The), London 1956-1970; later New Humanist, since 1970.
Radest, H.B., Toward Opinion Ground; The Story of the Ethical Societies in the United States,
Ungar, NY, 1969.
Radical Humanist (The), Calcutta, since 1948; formerly Independent India, Calcutta, 1937-1948.
Blackham, H.J., Humanism, Hammondsworth, 1968; 2nd ed., Guildford, 1976.
Choi Jai-hi, Humanism in Korea Today, 1968.
Hawton, H., The Humanist Revolution, London, 1963.
Munson, G.B., The Dilemma of the Liberated; An Interpretation of 20th Century Humanism,
Kennikatt Press, Pt Washington, NY, 1931; 1967.
Berger, P., Invitation to Sociology: A Humanist Perspective, Doubleday, Garden City, NY,
1963; Overlook Press, NY, 1973.
Dewey, J., A Common Faith, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1934.
Framm, E., Socialist Humanism, Doubleday, Garden City, NY, 1966.
Mannheim, K., Man and Society in an Age of Reconstruction, 1940; Harcourt, Brace,
Jovanovich, NY, 1967.
Ayer, A., ed., The Humanist Outlook, London, 1973.
Camus, A., L'honme revolte, Paris, 1952.
Humanist Manifestos I and II, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY, 1974.
Lament, C., Humanism as a Philosophy, NY, 1949.
State and Society: Ayer, A.J., and others. Towards an Open Society, London, 1971.
Democracy: Arendt, H., On Revolution, Viking, NY, 1965. Kurtz, P., and S. Stojanovic, Tolerance and Revolution: A Marxist-Non-Marxist Dialogue, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY., 1970.
Social Critique: Arendt, H., On Violence, Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, NY, 1969. Marcuse, H., One-dimensional Man, Beacon, Boston, 1964, 1975.
Justice: Barry, B., The Liberal Theory of Justice: A Critical Examination of the Principal Doctrines in "A Theory of Justice" by John Rawls, Oxford, 1973.
Self-determination: Fromm, E., Man for Himself; An Enquiry into the Psychology of Ethics, NY-London 1949; 1971; Rawcett, NY, 1976. Maslow, A.H., Motivation and Personality, 2nd ed., Warper & Row, NY, 1970.
My Brother's Keeper?: Buhler, C. and M. Alien, Introduction to Humanist Psychology, Brooks-Gble, Monterey, CA, 1972. Erikson, E.H., Identity, Youth and Crisis, International Universities
Press, NY, 1971. Franki, V.E., Man's Search for Meaning, Boston, 1962; NY, 1963. Kubler-Ross, E., On Death and Dying, London, 1969. Pruyser, P.W., The Minister as Diagnostician, Westminster, Philadelphia, PA, 1976.
Dr. James D. Strauss
Lincoln Christian Seminary
Lincoln, IL 62656