Foundational Theology:† Theology of Promise
I.†† Israel and The Goyim/le ummim of which 'amain often forms the parallel.
a.† See TDNT/DNTJ/TDOT for Goyim/le ummim and parallel 'amrnim; Koehler/ Baumgartner, Lexicon, 1953.
b.† Motifs in tension:† Election and universalism - when the prophetic universalism triumphs over the narrow election faith, a hope for missions arises.
c.† Goyim in Isaiah - 40.7,15; 41.2; 42.1,6; 43.9; 45.1,20; 49.6,7,22; 52.15,19; 54.3; 55.5; 58.2; 60.3,5; 60.11,12,16,22; 61.6,9,11; 62.2; 64.2; 65.1; 66.8,12,18,19,20.
d.† le umraim in Isaiah - 41.1; 43.4,9; 49.1; 54.4; 55.4; 60.2.
e.† Pabbim - occurs five times in Isaiah 52.13 - 53.12; cf. vs. J4.15 and 53.Hb, 12a, 12b - 'the many' is including the nations
f.†† The 'sehal' Yahweh is a perfect pre-figuration of the eschatological reality in which not all that are of Israel will participate and also of the fact that man, from outside of Israel, will come to partake of the 'new Israel's' eschatological glory.
g.† See important reference to promise in Isa. 44.3,4.† The multiplication and growth of the people are here posited as the fruit of the 'spirit' of Yahweh and of His 'Blessing.'† The Spirit is eschatological gift par excellence - Isa. 11.Iff. Those coming in will be called by the name Jacob and Israel (cf. Exodus and possession of the land - 49.8 - T. C. Vriezen, Die Erwahlung Israels nach dem Alten Testament, 1953; H. H. Rowely, The Biblical Doctrine of Election, 1950; J. Jocq, The Theology of Election; R. Martin Achard, "La signification theologique de 1'election d1 Israel," Theo Zeitschrift 16 (1960): 333-341.
†h.† Jacob/Israel - Isaiah 40.27; 41.8,14; 42.24; 43.1,22,28; 44.1,21,23; 45.4; 46.3; 48.1,12; 49.5,6.
a.† 40.9; 41.27; 52.1,2; 62.1
b.† Zion/Israel - 46.13
c.† "My People/House of Jacob - 58.1
d.† Zion/Jacob - 59.20
e.†† The prominence of Jacob/Israel in 40-48 is obvious and of Zion/Jerusalem in 49ff. Zion often appears by itself - 49.14; 51.3,11,16.
f.†† Does 55.3-5 refer to Israel or to the 'Davidic Messiah'? The passage contradicts the 'Urzeit-Endzeit schema' in that the theme relating to the 'David-tradition' could be applied to the people.† Note the covenant-relation between David and the People who share alike in 'the same covenant realities (esp.† 0. Eissfeldt, "The Promises of Grace to David in Isaiah 55.1-5,"† in Israel's Prophetic Heritage eds. Anderson and Harrelson, 1962, pp. 196-207.
g.† Exodus Typology in Isaiah 50-66.† (cf. W. Zimmerli "Der 'neue Exodus' in der Verkundigung der beiden gręssen Exilspropheten." Gottes Offenbarung 1963, pp. 192-204; B. W. Anderson, "Exodus Typology in Second Isaiah," Israel's Prophetic Faith, 1962, pp. 177-195
h.† Zion/Jerusalem - in OT/NT (cf. J. Schreiner Zion-Jerusalem Jahwes Konigssitz, 1963.† One of trilogy on the significance of Jerusalem in OT; see also Bibliography on Jerusalem:† The Holy City, 1988 Scarecrow Press) 513 pp.
i.†† The relationship of Promise/Covenant - Remnant Israel, The Goyim and The Universal (Global) Mission of The Church - Matthew 28.19ff.
Bibliography - Biblical Foundations for Global Cross-Cultural Communication of The Gospel - Is there one message for Israel and another for the Goyim? What is the relationship between Promise/Covenant, Israel, Kingdom of God and The Church? Does God
Dr. James Strauss Philosophy/Theology