NT use of OT: Theme:  Promise Hermeneutics

 

TEXTS:

 

France, Jesus and the O.T. Baker reprint, 1982.

Kaiser, The uses of the O.T. in the N.T. 1985.

Archer/Cherichigno O.T. Quotations in the N.T. Moody, 1983.

Silva, Moisen “The N.T. use of O.T.” in D.A. Carson and J. Woodbridge, eds., Scripture and Truth. Zondervan, 1983, pp.150-157.

 

THREE MATTERS CRUCIAL FOR NT USE OF OT SCRIPTURES:

 

1.  Concept of fulfillment in N.T.

2.  Exegetical procedures of the early Christians.

3.  Normativity of N.T hermeneutical procedures.

 

TEN WAYS OF UNDERSTANDING THE TEXTUAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE TESTAMENTS:

 

Possible approaches to dealing with OT citations in the NT to describe what might be occurring (ten as modified by Johnson).

 

1.  Corruption in transmission of MT.

2.  Corruption in transmission of LXX.

3.  Corruption in transmission of NT.

4.  MT understanding and pointing of text are correct over LXX.

5.  LXX understanding and syntactical arrangement of text are correct.

6.  Both MT/LXX are correct, legitimate harmony exists.

7.  NT quotation of LXX has included an erroneous part of LXX translation which NT authors are not affirming.

8.  NT quotation of LXX contains a figure different from that in MT text, but the point made from the figure is exactly the same as in the MT text. (e.g. Ps 40 in Heb 10 is close enough to the MT text so as not to be a problem, perhaps Ps 8 in Heb 2 is an example.)

9.  Difference is trivial and biblical authors affirm it. Silva rejects this category.

10. NT draws on an interpretation tradition about the passage from Judaism. Silva agrees with Longenecker. (Silva solves Heb 11:21 problem).

 

FOUR BASIC ALTERNATIVES; EVANGELICALS AND USE OF OT IN NT:

 

1.   Full Human Intent: (W.C. Kaiser - one sense, many events).

2.   Human Words: (S.L. Johnson, J.I. Packer, E.E. Johnson - one sense, multiple references with extension, Sensus Plenior).

3.   Historical Progress of Revelation and Jewish Hermeneutics: (E.E. Ellis, R. Longenecker, W. Dunnett).

4.   Canonical Approach and NT Priority: (B.K. Waltke -Childs’ Introduction to OT as Scripture; Canonical Hermeneutics. B. Metzger, NT Canon of Orthodoxy. 1987).

CRITICAL ISSUES:

 

1.  Dual Authorship - Human and Divine: Can God intend more in a passage than the human author intended? (Kaiser/Waltke - NO!)

 

 

A.

Sensus Plenior.

 

 

(Difference between       

 

 

B.

Reference Plenior

 

 

meaning and reference).

 

 

2.  Language - Reference.

3.  Sense - Reference

 

A. Referents - make more specific.

B. Motifs -  reapplied.

C. Language - Earthly/Heavenly Kingdom

D. Language - Figurative/Literal (Ps 22, Ps 110)

E.  Language- Literal/Figurative (I Cor 5:7, I Cor 15:20)

 

FULFILLMENT WORDS IN THE NT; PROMISE AND FULFILLMENT.

 

1.  Prophecy and Pleroum (Hatch/Redpath/BDB/Baur)

2.  Promise/no mere verification, no mere coming to pass or coming true - Moule ‘Fulfill’ in IDB

1962.

3.  Tupos (Goppelt - TUPOS in TWNT. VII, pp. 246ff).

 

FROM SCRIPTURE TO JESUS

 

1.  Fulfillment is at the heart of Biblical Theology.

2.  The “Proof from Prophecy” approach.

3.  Exegetical procedures of Early Christians.

4.  Rabbinic Exegesis - Midrashic exegesis and Literal exegesis. (Mishnah, Palestinian Gemaras,

the earlier Rabbis (Tannaim) and the difference between their literal interpretations and their

more elaborate exegetical treatments.)

5.  Hermeneutical objectivity: Enlightenment myth.

6.  Lordship of Christ over Scripture.

 

CENTER OF THEOLOGY:

 

1. Eichrodt

God and man related by covenant.

2. Selling

The holiness of God.

3. Koehler

God is Lord.

4. Wildberger

Israel’s election as people of God.

5. Seebass

The ruler-ship of God.

6. Vriezen

Man and God in fellowship.

7. Fohrer

Rule of God and communion with man.

8. Von Rad

No one focal point of God.

 

“I have not attempted to keep track of all Old Testament scholars who have made similar statements (Eichrodt, Theology of the Old Testament. 2 vols. tr. by J.A. Baker, OT Library (Philadelphia, 1961-1967), 1.499: italics his), but we might take note of the following: Eissfeldt argues that in Israel Yahweh’s kingship had an orientation toward eschatology, that his worshippers ever considered themselves to be in Advent, ever looked to their God-King as one coming (“Yahweh as King,” p. 89); E. Jenni states that “The coming of Yahweh is the central idea of OT eschatology” and that “Salvation . . . basically consists of the coming of Yahweh” (“Eschatology in the Old Testament,” OTS, 2:127-28); and Jacob states that “the basis of Israel’s hope is solely the certitude that their God Yahweh . . . would come and establish his kingship” (Theology of the Old Testament, tr. by A.W. Heathcote and P.J. Allcock [London, 1958], p. 317). See also A. Jepsen, “Eschatlolgie im AT,” RGG. 2:661; H.D. Preuss, Jahweglaube und Zukunfts erwartuno. pp. 205 ff; and L. Durr, Ursprung und Ausbau der israel i tisch-.iudische Hei landserswartupg. p. 38.

 

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Packer, J.I. “Unfolding the Unity of Scripture Today” JETS 25(Dec. 82): 409-414.

Pancaro, S. “The Relationship of the Church to Israel in the Gospel of St. John”, New Testament Studies 21 (1975), 396-405.

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_______. “Redemptive Event and History” in W. Pannenberg, Basic Questions in Theology. I ET London, 1970, 15-80.

Payne, J. B. Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy: The Complete Guide to Scriptural Predictions and Their Fulfillment. London. 1973.

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________. “The OT in Acts: Wilcox’s Semitisms in Retrospect”, CBQ 42 (1980), 330-341.

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Dr. James Strauss, Lincoln Christian Seminary