TP600 Foundations of Biblical Theology: Theology of Promise                 Dr. James D. Strauss

Theology/Philosophy (cf. Cultural/Linguistic Vocabulary)


Promise, Covenant and Use of Hosea and Amos in The New Testament


(See especially Cranfield, Michel, Kuss, Dunn and Kaesemann on Romans; see my Exegesis/ Theology/Bibliography on Romans)




A. Ethnos

B. Israel

C. Joudaios

D. Goyim


I.   Israel and The Goyim in The Old Testament: See study Israel/Goyim, esp. Isaiah 40-66.


     A.     TDNT/DNTT - an “adoption”

     B. Esp. Pauline theology of Adoption (Romans/Galatians)


II. The People of God Include Both Jews and Gentiles, as Prophesied: (Romans 9.24-29) Rabbinic practice of quotation - Str.B; 3.274)


     A. Rom. 9.24 - Hosea, "I will call the 'not my people' my people and the 'not loved 'loved:"


     B. Vs. 25 - Hos. 2.25 LXX (Mst. 2.23) ". . .they shall be called sons of the living God."

          1.     proetoinasen (Kaesemann, Kuss, and Schleer)

          2.     Jew/Gentile theme throughout Romans


C. Vs. 27 - Isaiah - concerning Israel and The Remnant (Hos 1.10 (LXX 2.1) and Isaiah 10.22-23


     D. Vs. 29 - Isaiah - "Except the Lord of Sabbath had left us seed. . ."


E.   Paul adapted the theme of Israel's Restoration by changing the reference of the first two Hosea passages to the Gentiles (cf. Wilckens, 2:198-99; Lindars, "Universalism," 516-517).


F.   Remnant Language (to hupoleinma both positive and negative senses - II Kgs. 21.14; Isa. 14.22, 30; Ezek. 5.10; Gen. 45.7; II Kgs. 19.31; Mic. 4.7; 5.7-8; Siriac 44.17; 47.22; I Mace. 3.35 - see TDMT 4.196 - 214); see also Qumran, double threatening concept (IQS 4.14; 5.13; CD 2.6; IQM 1.6; 4.2; 14.5; IQH 6.32; 7.22. Note also remnant of the covenant people (CD 1.4-5; IQM 13.8; 14.8-9; IQM 6.8); Paul's problem is the relating of the reality of the faithful few to the Israel of promise (cf. Hos. 1.10; 2.23; with Isaiah 10.22-23; Gen. 32.12). The Remnant theme sounds depressingly few; "seed" can embrace all the nations, Gentiles as well as Jews.



III. Israel Hosea Misunderstood God's Righteousness (9.30 - 10.4)

      (see esp. Raisanen, H - Law, pp. 53-56; Refoule, F. "Romans 10.4: Encore une fois." Revue Biblique 91 (1984):321-50; Sanders, E.P., Law, pp. 36-43; Ziesler, J. Righteousness, pp. 205-207; Badenas, R. "Christ the End of The Law: Romans 10.4" in Pauline Perspective. JSNT Supp. 10 Sheffield: JSOT, 1985.


     A. Note association of Hos. 2.23 (LXX 2.5) and Isaiah 28.16, 8.14 in I Peter 2.6-10.

B. The theology of God's promise and His faithfulness to 'The Promise hermeneutically orders the entire discussion in Romans 9-11.