Promise Theology and Eschatology

James D. Strauss


I.        Eschatological Perspectives in the O.T.: Theology of Promise (I Pet. l:10 ff)


A.      Genesis 3:15

B.      Genesis 12:Iff. (Promise to Abraham and N.T. interpretation -Lk.24:44 ff; Acts 26:6-7; Heb. 6:13-17; Heb. ll:9f; 39-40; Rom. 4:13-14,20; (pi) Rom. 9:4; 15:8-9; Heb. 7:6; 8:6; Acts 7:2, 17; Acts 13:22-23;32-33; Lk. 1:69-72-73; Gal. 3:15-18, 22, 29; 4:23, 28.

C.      Promise and the Patriarchs

1.       “Seed” is promised to Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Jacob (Gen. 13:14ff;

15, 17:6-7; 15-16; 26:3-4; 28:3-4; 35:11-12; 48:3-4;

2.         Persons

3.       A Great Nation - 18:18; 35:11; 46:3;

4.       ‘ Gathered Nations - 28:3; 35:11; 48:4; 17:6, 16;

5.       Kings from Abraham, et al. - 17:6, 16; 35:11;

6.       Promised Land - 18:18; 22:17-18; 26:3-4; 17:4-5.  Paul correctly cites this passage in proof that the Gentile Christians are children of Abraham - Rom. 4:11-12, 16-18.

D.      Covenant is promise in different form “Seed” - Gal. 3:16-19.

E.      Promise renewed to Israel and David.

1.       Israel - Ex. 6:7; Deut. 29:12-13; Ex. 31:16-17; Lev. 26:44-45; Deut. 4:30-31; Deut. 28:9-10; Ex. 19:5,6 (see I Pet. 2:5-10); (Rev. 1:6; 5:9-10); Ex. 3:13; 2:24; 6:3-5; 4:31.

2.       House of David - II Sam. 7; I Chron. 22:9.  Promise to David parallels that to the patriarchs and to Israel of the exodus. Is the promise to David for all mankind like the promise to Abraham and Israel?

F.       Promise of the Prophets and Psalms

1.       Ps. 89 (Identity of promise made to David, Israel and Abraham).

2.       The nations, the Temple and the Promise - Isa. 55:1,3; 56:3-7; Matt. 21:13; Mk. 11:17; Lk. 19:46; Zech. 14:16-21.Nations going up to Jerusalem to worship at feast of tabernacles.

G.      Promise and the Messiah - Isa. 40-55; Isa. 55:3; I Kings 2:4; 8:25; 9:5; Isa. 41:8; 43:5; 44:3; 45:19-25.  Promise is for the nations - Isa. 39-66; Servant as Israel - 41:8-10; 42:18-19;43:9-10; 44:1-3; 44:21; 45:4; 48:20; 49:3; Rom. 9:6-8.

1.       Isa. 42:1-4 - Matt. 12:18-21.

2.       Isa. 52:13-53 - Acts 8:32-33; “Light to the nations” - Isa. 49:6.

H.      Promise - Kingdom of God (Kingdom and the Messiah)

1.       Isa. 9:7; 11:6-9; Ez. 34:24-31; Isa. 4:2-6; Dan. 2:44-45; 7:27;

2.       Messiah as coming person - Matt. 11:3; 21:9; 23:39; Lk. 7:19-20; 19:38; Jn. 6:14; 11:27; 12:13; Acts 19:4; Joel 3:12; 2:28-32; Acts 2:14ff; Obadiah 3:14-16; Amos 3:14;

3.       “Day of Yahweh” - Matt. 24:31; I Thess. 4:16; Acts 2:17; II Tim. 3:1; Heb. 1:2; II Pet. 3:10-12; I Thess. 5:2-4; Matt. 9:22; 11:22-24 (See Ladd’s, Jesus and the Kingdom).

I.  Eschatology in Intertestamental Literature.

J.  Eschatology of the Book of Enoch,

K.  Eschatology of the Simititudes.


L.   Jewish Eschatology in time of Jesus Christ (see Voltz,  Eschatology).

M. Parousia in Teaching of our Lord.

1.       Reply to Caiaphas.

2.       Prophecies of Jerusalem’s Fall.

3.       Parables.

4.       New Israel.

5.       Goyyim.


II.      N.T. Eschatology Since the 19th Century.



A.      Derived from eschaton, “the last things.” Used only since 19th century.

B.      God’s definitive intervention in history through Christ Jesus.

C.      N.T. generally regards as being deployed in two distinct phases delineated by Christ’s first and second coming.

D.      Biblical eschatology may be subdivided into personal (ultimate destiny of the individual), collective (national in O.T., Body, i.e. Church in N.T.), and cosmic (final status of the universe).

E.      Biblical understanding is far more comprehensive in its concern than with judgment, heaven and hell.

F.       be’aharit hoyyamin, “at the end of days,” i.e., at the conclusion of history, or simply “the last times”? The question is - what is the relationship of history to eschatology.  (B. Wawter, “Apocalyptic:  Its Relation to Prophecy,” CBQ, 1960, vol. 22; J. Barr, Biblical Words for Time.  London, 1962; O. Cullmann, Christ and Time. Phil. Westminster.

G.      Biblical view of time is linear in sense of implying teleological conception of history, i.e., history of Israel, Church, and the universe, is a history with definable beginning, moving toward a purposeful goal, determined by God’s power and providence.

H.      On the other hand, the biblical view of time is not linear if that term implies an evolutionary process. I. The End is based upon set of occurrences in the past by which salvation has been essentially accomplished in the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

J.        The Future is determined by crucial events of N.T. history involved in the person of Christ.  Eschatology is inseparable from Christ and His mission of redemption.

K. A. Ritschl eliminated the eschatological element from Jesus’ teaching. A. R. claimed that Jesus had preached a purely spiritual invisible Kingdom of God existing in the souls of men (see P. Hefner, Faith and Vitalities of History (NY:  Harper, 1966).

L. J. Weiss, A. R.’s son-in-law, and A. Schweitzer “rediscovered” the significance of the eschatological features of the Gospel.

M. A. Schweitzer maintained that Jesus thought himself to be the Messiah (wrongly) and that the Kingdom was imminent. Jesus forced the issue of Kingdom and was crucified (Schweitzer’s “thoroughgoing eschatology”).

N. C. H. Dodd’s reaction comes to be known as “realized eschatology.” Eschatology has been realized in history in the person of the historical Jesus. Paul and John introduced realized eschatology into N.T. theology, according to Dodd, et al.

0.  Eschatology of Synoptics and in Apostolic preaching.

P.       Pauline Eschatology - Two characteristics which differentiate it from Jewish eschatology and apocalyptic:

1.       He who comes at the end of history is not some unknown but the glorified historical Jesus (Kummel, Promise and Fulfillment).

2.       N.T. eschatology is consistent with and dependent upon O.T.  thought for most of its conceptions and imagery. The tension between “the already” and “the not yet.” eg. II Peter 3:4.  Where now is the promise of his coming? Our fathers have been laid to rest, but yet everything continues exactly as it has always been since the world began.

Q.      Conversion of Israel - difficulty in converting Diaspora Jewry.

R.      Apocalyptic Imagery (ref. Synoptic imagery) e.g. I Thess. 1:10; 4:13-18; II Thess. 2:1-10; I Cor. 2:6; 15:23-28; II Cor. 4:4; Col. 2:14; Eph. 1:22.

S.  Salvation “the redemption of our body” - Rom. 8:23; I Thess. 5:8; II Thess. 2:18; Phil. 2:12; II Cor. 6:2 (Isa. 49:8; II Cor. 6:2); Rom. 13:11; Eph. 2:5-8; II Tim. 1:9; 4:18; Titus 3:5.

T.  Parousia, apocalypsis, epiphaneia - I Thess. 2:19, 3:13, 4:15, 5:23; II Thess. 2:1, 8, 9; I Cor. 15:23; II Thess. 1:7; I Cor. 1:7.

U.  Judgment - I Thess. 5:2; II Thess. 2:2; I Cor. 1:8; 5:5; II Cor. 1:14; Phil. 1:23; II Cor. 5:8-10 (For excellent bibliography on Pauline Eschatology see B. Rigaux, Les Epitres aux Thessaloniciens (Paris, 1956), pp. xxiii - xxix; and H. A. A. Kennedy, St. Paul’s  conception of the Last Things (London, 1905), and G. Voss, Pauline Eschatology (Grand Rapids:  Eerdmans, pb).

V.  Jesus and the Future (Eschatology of the Synoptics)

1.    John the Baptist’s eschatology - Matt. 3:10f; Lk. 3:10-14.

2.    Matt. 4:14-16; 10:23; 13:24-30, 37-40; 25:1-13; 27:51-53(Matt. 24 considered elsewhere).

3.    Lk. “Gospel of Salvation” 1:69, 71, 77; 2:30; 3:6; 19:9-savior - 1:47, 2:11.

4.    Mk. 1:21-27; 2:1 - 3:6; 3:11-12; 5:1-17; 7:24-30; 9:14-29.(J. M. Robinson, The Problem of History in Mark (London, 1957); E. Best, The Temptation and the Passion.  (Cambridge, 1965); Gr. Beasley Murray, Jesus and the Future (NY:  MacMillan).

5.     Johannine Eschatology - 12:31 - krisis aspects of Jesus’ministry (see J. Blank, Krisis;  Freiburg, 1964; P. Ricca, Die Eschatologie des Vierten Evangeliums, (Zurich, 1966).  The Apocalypse is only prophetic book in N.T.  Central theme is eschatological Lordship of the Risen Lord (see my The Seer, Saviour, and the Saved).

The Significance of the Future has been created and revealed to us by Jesus Christ.


III.   Maranatha:  The King Is Coming!


“And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached throughout the whole earth as a testimony to all nations; and then the end will come.” Matthew 24:14, “Come, Lord Jesus” Revelation 22:20, “Christ is coming!’  The time between His first and last coming (second coming is not a biblical term) is the “last days.”  (Read Matt. 24-25; Mk. 13; Lk. 21; I-II Thess.; and the Revelation).  Ours is the day of insecurity and prophets on every hand; from every spectrum, from occult practitioners to Edgar Cayce and Jean Dixon, reveal the secrets of the future. What does the Word say regarding these signs?


The Coming Again of Jesus Christ


A.      New Testament terms for the Second Coining.

1.       Personal Presence (Gk. Parousia) - denotes both an arrival

and consequent presence - I Thess. 4:15; Matt. 24:27; II Thess. 2:8; Matt. 24:38-39; II Pet. 3:12-13.

2.       Come (Gk. Erchomai) - to come from one place to another - Matt. 24:30; Matt. 25:6-13; 24:37, 44; I Thess. 5:2; II Thess.  1:8-10; Rev. 22:7, 12, 20.  Be waiting and watchful.

3.       Arrive (Gk. Heko) - in contrast to erchomai, it stresses the point of arrival - Matt. 24:14; II Peter 3:10; Heb. 10:37; Rev. 2:15. Hope for Christians and warning to the lost.

4.       Revelation (Gk. Apokalupsis) - a manifestation, uncovering and unveiling - Rom. 2:5; Rom. 8:19; I Cor. 1:7; II Thess.  1:7-8; I Pet. 1:7, 13; I Pet. 4:13; Lk. 17:26-30; I Pet. 1:5. Revelation brings final judgment to the lost and final peace and joy to the saints.

5.       Appearing (Gk. Epiphania) - an appearance or a shining forth II Thess. 2:8; I Tim. 6:13-14; II Tim. 4:1; II Tim. 4:8; Titus 2:12-13.

B.      The Day of Christ:  “In these last days” - Joel 2:28-32; Acts 2:16-21; Heb. 1:1-2; I Cor. 10:11; I Pet. 1:20; I Jn. 2:18.

1.       Day of the Son of Man - Luke 17:24, 30.

2.       Day of Judgment - Matthew 10:15.

3.       Day of Wrath - Romans 2:15.

4.       Day of Our Lord Jesus Christ - I Cor. 1:8; 5:5; Phil. 1:6.

5.       Day of Christ - Phil. 1:6, 10; 2:16.

6.       Day of the Lord - I Thess.

7.       Day of Visitation - I Peter 2:12.

8.       Day of God - II Peter 3:12.

9.       Great Day - Jude 6.

10.    Day of Redemption - Eph. 4:30.

11.    Day of Vengeance - Isa. 61:2.

12.    The Day - I Cor. .3:13; Heb. 10:25; Matt. 24:36.

C.      Old Age and World Order.

D.      New Age and New World Order.

Believers live in “last days” upon which “the end of ages are come” but the “last day,” the consummation of the age still lies in the future” (Matt. 13:39,40, 49; 24:3; 28:20; Jn. 6:39, 44, 54; 12:48; I Cor. 10:11; II Tim. 3:1; Heb. 1:2; 9:26; I Peter 1:5, 20; II Pet. 3:3; I Jn. 2:18; Jude vs. 18.

E.      Two Ages:  (1) This age (Houtos ho aion; ho nun aion); (2) the Present Age (ho enestos aion) Matt. 12:32; 13:22; Lk. 16:8; Rom. 12:2; I Cor. 1:20; 2:6, 8; 3:18; II Cor. 4:4; Gal. 1:4; Eph. 1:21; 2:2; 6:12; I Tim. 6:17; II Tim. 4:10; Titus 2:12.

F.       That Age (ho aion ekeinos); The Future Age (ho aion melion; ho aion erchomenosl Matt. 12:32; Lk. 18:30; 20:35; Eph. 2:7; Heb.  6:5. (Dalman, Die Worte Jesu, I, pp. 132-46 - Kosmos never used of future world.) Christ-centered character of N.T. Eschatology:  (1) Resurrection; (2) Judgment. Consequent upon the Parousia of Christ. The realities of the future life are so vividly and intensely felt to be existent in heaven and from there operative in the believer’s life.

Anticipation - Eph. 1:3, 20-22; 2:6; 3:9, 10; 4:9, 10; 6:12.

Realization - Phil. 2:5-11; 3:20; Col. 1:15-17; 3:2; Heb. 1:2, 3; 2:5; 3:4; 6:5-11; 7:13-16; 9:14; 11:10-16; 12:22-23.

The Coming King (Parousia) - never applied to Incarnation - II Thess. 2:8; II Tim. 1:10; 4:1; Titus 2:11-13; I Thess. 6:14 -only to coming again, i.e., final culmination (First advent/ Second advent appears only in Test, of 12 Patriarchs, “Test of Abraham” 92:16.

G.      Signs Preceding His Coming

1.       Characteristics

a.       Sudden - Rev. 22:29; Lk. 17:24.

b.       Unexpected - Matt. 24:39; Lk. 12:40; I Thess. 5:2;

Rev. 16:15.

c.       Visible by all - Rev. 1:7.

d.       Heard by all - Matt. 16:27; Mk. 13:26; II Thess. 1:7.

e.       Accompanied by angels and clouds - Matt. 16:27; 24:30-31;


f.        Calamities and afflictions.

2.       Results

a.       Complete work of first coining - Heb. 9:28.

b.       Complete salvation - Heb. 9:28.

c.       Complete and final separation - Matt. 24:37-39.

d.       Kingdom consummated - I Cor. 15:24; Rom. 8:20-21; II Pet. 3:7.

e.       Defeat of Satan - Rev. 12:10-12; 20:3; II Thess. 2:8.

f.        Purpose of God worked out in history - Matt. 12:32;Mk. 10:30; IJc. 20:34.

3.       Millennium and Signs of the Times:  Rev. 20:4; Ps. 56:8;Acts 1:7; Matt. 12:38; 16:4; IJc. 11:29; Mk. 8:12; Matt. 24;Mk. 13; IJc. 21.

a.       Amillennial

b.       Premillennial (Dispensational, e.g. Scofield Reference Bible and Late Great Planet Earth, etc.

c.       Post-millennial (See Strauss, Seer, Saviour, and the Saved, pp. 438-457; and Boettner’s Millennium.

H.      Prophets - Isaiah, Zechariah, Ezekiel, Daniel, et al.

1.       Kingdom and Church (use of Kingdom and Matt. 16:16f; Isa. 40-66.)

2.       Covenant (Heb. 8-9; Jer. 31:31f).

3.       Israel and the Church (Rom. 8, 9, 10, Gal.)

4.       Meaning of Everlasting

5.       Tribulation

6.       Anti-Christ and Man of Sin

7.       Judgment

8.       Resurrection (First and Second)

9.       Heaven and Hell (See Strauss study, esp. pp. 455-457).

I.        Conflict (1) Parousia will come suddenly and unexpectedly; (2) Come heralded by these signs; (3) This generation - 2 references to 2 different issues.  Vs. 30 - “these things (a. dem. pron. “that”); Vs. 32 - “that day or that hour” (b. dem. pron. “but”) Mark 13:28-29 preceding parable.  These things and parousia are distinguished.

Question:  How much - “these things (vs. 29; Lk. 21:31) “all these things” Matt. 24:33-34; Mk. 13:30), “all things” (I Jn. 21:32) is intended to cover up what is described in the preceding discourse.

Answer:  depends on - Is Jesus referring to 2 crises or 1? a. Zahn - Signs cover only Matt. 24:4-14. What is related afterwards, viz. “the abomination of desolation,” “great tribulation, false prophets and christs, commotions in the heavens, the sign of the Son of man, all this belongs to “the end.” Prediction fulfilled in Jesus’ World or Ours?

1.       Mark 13:15-29 subsume under “The End”? Compare with vs. 4-14 -Signs.

2.       Problem of existence of Temple and Temple worship are presupposed in last days immediately before the parousia.

3.       The “abomination of desolation” taken from Du. 8:13; 9:27; 11:31; 12:11.destruction of city - Temple desecration of temple - site by setting up idolatry flight from Judaea

4.       Recurrence of difficulty - II Thess. 2:3-4 where “the man of sin” is represented as sitting in “the Temple of God” and in Rev. 11:12 where “temple of God,” and “altar” and the court which is without the temple” and “the holy city” (between sixth and seventh trumpet).

5.       It is not easy to conceive of preaching the Gospel to all nations as falling within the Lifetime of that generation (Matt. 24:14; Rom. 1:13; 10:18; 15:19-24; Col. 1:6; I Tim. 3:16; II Tim. 4:17.

a.       Preaching to all nations

b.       Preaching to Gentiles

6.       Jesus’ discourse relates to 2 things:

a.       Destruction of Jerusalem and Temple

b.       End of the world

7.       Signs (negative Mk. 13:5-8; Positive vss. 9-13).

a.       Signs of destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple -vss. 14-20.

b.       Abomination of Desolation in period preceding the national catastrophe.

c.       Signs of parousia - vss. 24-27.

d.       Attitude toward national crisis is defined in parable of fig tree.

e.       Attitude toward the parousia - vss. 32-37.

J.        Events Preceding Coming Again:

1.       Uniform teaching of Jesus, Peter, Paul - Israel - Matt. 23:39; Lk. 13:35; Acts 1:6-7; 3:19-21.  “Seasons of refreshing” and “Times of restoration of all things” dependent on eschatological sending of Christ to Israel and dependent on Israel’s repentance, conversion and blotting out of the sins of Israel -Rom. 11 - Israel’s unbelief:  (1) Now in Israel an election according to grace; (2) Future extensive conversion of Israel - vss. 5, 25-32.

2.     Coming Anti-Christ

a.     I Jn. 2:18-22; 4:3; II Jn. 7 (also in Synoptics, Paul, and Revelation).

b.     Synoptics - coming of false Christs and false prophets (Mk. 13:6,22)

c.    Paul’s view of Counter Christ:  II Thess. 2:6-8 (vss. 9-12) e.g. Gunkel, Bousset whose works have been reprinted, claim the origin of concept of final struggle between God and great enemy - found in myth of chaos conquered by Marduk, ie., what had happened at the beginning of the world is transferred to the end (compare with O.T. eg. Ez., Dan., and Zech.)  Note also conception of a single enemy in Apoc. Baro. 40:1-2, which charges conception of 4 Ezdras Plurals “false Christs” and “false prophets”, and instigator of “the abomination of desolation.”  (I Jn. 2:18-22; II Jn. 7 - spirit of anti-Christ and the “mystery of lawlessness is already at work.”)  Same expectation in Rev. 13:3, 12-14; 17:8, 10-17; II Thess. 2:9-12.

d.     Working of Satan:  Supernatural character of Satan’s activity in the world (“the lawless one,” the man of sin” “power” “signs” and “wonders” - to accredit a lie.  (gen. pseudous).

e.     Who is the “hinderer” in II Thess. 2:7?

f.      “The abomination of desolation” connected with apostacy via false teaching (Mk. 13:22-23; the lawless one” and destructive effects of error II Thess. 2:9-12).

g.     Evangelion, anti-Christ and Apostacy, Forces of evil gather strength toward the “end” (Matt. 24:27ff; Lk. 17:24ff; I Thess. 5:2-3; II Thess. 1:7.


Resurrection and the Coming Again of Christ.


History Making Power of the Resurrection:


1.       Resurrection and Coming Again - Uc. 20:35; Jn. 6:40; I Thess. 4:16; 3:13.

2.       Resurrection of the Word - Egeirein - to awake; Anistanai - to raise (Resurrection and the Spirit - Isa. 26:19; Du. 12:2).

3.       Resurrection a single event. N.T. nowhere teaches, as chiliasm (Millennium) assumes, a resurrection in two stages, one at the coming again of Christians living and dead, and a second one at close of the millennium.  Passages supposedly teaching a double resurrection are: Acts 3:19-21; I Cor. 15:23-28; Phil. 3:9-11; I Thess. 4:13-18; II Thess. 1:5-12; Rev. 20:1-6 (Acts 3:21 - “must receive” - a present, not future tense; “times of restoration of all things”; and “seasons of refreshing.”

4.       Two Orders:  Two “tagmata” - I Cor. 15:23-28.

a.       Two orders not “believers” and “unbelievers”

b.       Two orders are “Christ” and “Christians”

5.       Possible exclusion and provisional reign? I Thess. 4:13-18 (vs. 14 - resurrection is guaranteed); II Thess. 1:5-12.

6.       Resurrection for all believers - Phil. 3:9-11.

7.       Millennial Reign of Christ - Rev. 20:1-6.

a.       First resurrection - Rev. 19.

b.       Second resurrection - spiritual, physical (compare resurrection in I Thess. and I Cor. (See Strauss bibliography on Resurrection in Orr’s Resurrection, College Press reprint and my paper “The Resurrection as a History-Making Event.”

c.       Nature of the Resurrection Body - I Cor. 15:35-58 vs. 35 “with what manner of body do they come” - answer from vs. 50ff.


An Appointed Time;  Judgment


Day of Judgment - Matt. 7:22; 10:15; 24:36; Lk. 10:12; 21:34; I Cor. 1:8; 3:13; II Tim. 4:8; Rev. 6:17 (e.g. O.T. “The Day of Yahweh”).


1.       N.T. does not speak of judgment after death, not even Heb. 9:27-28.

2.       Recognize two groups - condemned and saved (Matt. 25:33-34;Jn. 5:29).

3.       Degree of guilt - based on knowledge of Divine will possess in life (Matt. 10:15; 11:20-24; Lk. 10:12-15; 12:47-48; Jn. 15:22-24; Rom. 2:12; II Pet. 2:20-22.

4.       Descriptions of destruction - eternal fire - Matt. 18:8; 25:41;Jude vs. 7; eternal punishment - Matt. 25:36; eternal destruction -II Thess. 1:9; eternal judgment - Mk. 3:29; Heb. 6:2; unquenchable fire - Matt. 3:12; never-dying worm - Mk. 9:43-48; the smoke of their torment goes up for ever and ever - Rev. 14:11; tormented day and night forever and forever - Rev. 20:10.

5.       Conditional immortality urged via terms - apoleia, perdition; phtora, corruption; olethros, destruction; thanatos, death.  Both testaments use these terms in sense of undesirable state

of existence, not non-existence.

6.       Restoration of All Things - fulfillment of promises to Israel. Apokatastasis panton only Acts 3:21 - never used in sense of absolute universalism, but rather to fulfillment. Universalism as cosmic not “every individual, e.g. Rom. 5:18; I Cor. 15:22; 28; Eph. 1:10; Col. 1:20.

7.       Kingdom, Life and Glory - New Heaven and New Earth - Isa. 61-66; Rev. 19-21; II Peter 3:6; Rom. 8:18-22.

8.       Second chancism and intermediate state between death and the consummation of the Kingdom of God. (I Peter 3:19-21; 4:6).

a.       Punishment, Person and Place - (Gehenna - Matt. 5:22, 29-30; Jas. 3:6; Abussos - Lk. 8:31; Rom. 10:7; Rev. 9:1-2; Tartaroun - II Peter 2:4; Hades, Sheol - Matt. 11:23; 16:18; Acts 2:27-31; I Cor. 15:55; Rev. 1:18; 6:8; 13:14; Lk. 16:23 - only passage where concept is localized.

b.       Maranatha!




Eschatology and Apocalyptic in General


The Background of the New Testament and its Eschatology, In honor of C. H. Dodd, Ed. by W.

D. Davies and D. Daube, 1956.

Bietenhard, H., Die himmlische Welt im Urchristentum und Spa*tjudentum, 1951.

Block, J., On the Apocalyptic in Judaism, 1953.

Bousset, Wilhelm, Per Antichrist in der Ueberlieferung des Judentums, des Neuen Testaments

und der Alten Kirche, 1895. Die Religion des Judentums in Spathellenistischen Zeitalter,

3rd edition by H. Gressmann, 1926.

Bultmann, Rudolf, “Die Bedeutung der Eschatologie fur die Religion des Neuen Testament,” in

 Zeitschrift fur Theologie u. Kirche, Bd.27, (1917), p. 76ff.

Bultmann, Rudolf, “The Bible Today und die Eschatologie,” in The Background of the New

Testament (Dodd-Festschrift), 1956, p. 402-408.

Bultmann, Rudolf, “History and Eschatology in the New Testament,” in New Testament Studies

I (1954-55) p. 5-16.

Burkitt, F. C., “Life, Zoe, Hayyim,” in ZNW, 12 (1911), p. 228-230.

Charles, R. H., A Critical History of the Doctrine of Future Life in Israel, in Judaism, and in

 Christianity, 1899. (2nd. ed. 1913).

Conzelmann, Hans, “Auferstehung V. In N.T.” in RGG I3, p. 695-696.  “Eschatologie IV. Im

Urchristentum” in RGG II3, (1958), pp. 665-672.

Cullmann, Oskar, Le retour de Christ, 1943..  “Unsterblichkeit der Seele und Auferstehung der

Toten,” in Theol. Zeitschrift 12 (1956), pp. 126-156.

Dodd, C. H., The Apostolic Preaching and its Developments, 1936.

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