TP600 Foundations of Biblical Theology

Fall 1988  SLCC

James Strauss, Professor

 

Foundational Theology:  Promise/Covenant (Luke 24.44ff); Promise and Law

 

1.    The Law: Torah occurs some 220 times in the OT and is derived from the word yarah ^ffiTch means “to direct, teach or instruct in”, (see TDNT; DNTTh) (Prov. 3.1; 1.8; 13.14; Isa. 1.10; II Chr. 33.8).       

2.     Torah is to express the character of life in the covenant (Ex. 19.56).

3.     Torah - Policy and Procedures (Mendenhall, 1954, pp. 26, 27).

4.     Development of The Torah given at Sinai (Hag. 2.11-13; Mai. 2.6-7; Pss. 1.1-5; 24.4-6; Ex.

          22.2; Dt. 31.24-26; Bk. of The Covenant Ex. 21-33).

5.     Basic Legal Sections (Ex. 19; 20.1-17; Dt 5.6-21; 30:15-20).

6.    With only two exceptions the laws are expressed in negative terms. “There is not commanded what establishes the relation to Yahweh, but prohibited what destroys it.” (Butbrod, TDNT IV, p. 1037)

7.     The Book of The Covenant follows The Ten Words - Ex. 21-23; Lev. 107

8.    The Holiness Code - Lev 17-26.  “You shall be holy to me; for I the Lord am holy.” - Lev. 20.26 Collection of Laws contained in Dt. 12-16 ‘This say’ - Dt 5.1-3; 26.26-19; 29.10-15

9.    OT Law and Law of Neighboring Peoples (God was the law giver in Israel; King was law giver among other peoples ) Dt. 4.8; Ps. 147.20 (see R. deVaux, Israel I, p. 146)

 

                   Idolatry condemned - Ex 20.23; 22.20

                   Life - Gen 9.5; Ex 21.28,32

                   Capital punishment less frequent in Israel than among other nations (compare with                                                     Hammurabi Code - 203)

                   Blind/Deaf - Lev. 19.14

                   Widows and fatherless - Ex. 22.21-22

                   Poor - Dt. 15.7-11; Lk. 6.20

                   Strangers - Ex. 23.9

                   Disadvantaged - Ex. 22.23

 

10. Law in The Community

 

                   A.   Priority of Covenant (see de Vaux, I, p.157; Job 9.33)

                   B.   Priests were entrusted with the law (Dt.21. 9; “19. 12; 25.7-10; Ex. 18.16; 34.9;11-12;

                             15.2-6) II Chr. 19.4-11; I Sam. 7.15-17; II Sam.

 

11. Law       in The Prophets

 

                   A.   Isaiah 1                                                       

                   B.   Amos 5.21-24                            

                   C.   Micah 6.8

                   D.  Ez. 36.26-27; 33.30-33

                   E.  Jer. 31.31-34.

 

12. Post-Exilic Developments (Intertestamental Theological Development)

 

                   A.   NT opposition to Rabbinic Thinking, Mark 7.9; Neh. 10.29; 9; Dt. 17.8-26; 19

                             Traditions, changing times and adaptation

                   B. Personal appeal - Ex. 22.21; 20.5 Dt. 6.5; 10.16-22; 22.24; Matt. 22.37; Jos. 24.15;

                             Lev. 19:18; Ps. 19:10         

                   C. Law based on God’s Holiness - Lev. 11.44; Dt. 2.6; 316; Matt. 5.17 (see my Holiness

                             and Wholeness on reserve )

                   D. Universal Significance - Ex. 23.4-5; Prov. 25.21; Isa. 2.2-4; 42. 6-7; 61.1-2; Lk. 4.18-

                             21; Jer. 31.31-34.

 

13. Jesus and The Law (Law and Gospel)

14. Paul and The Law (Law and Grace)

                  

                   A.   Promise and Law - Romans

                   B.   Promise and Law - Galatians

 

(See Torah/Nomos in TDNT and DNTT)