Theology of OT Prophets                                               J. D. Strauss, Lincoln Christian Seminary

Advanced NT Theology: Theology of Promise:

The Faithfulness of God, Consummation of Creation




I. Presence of God and Creation - Genesis 1-11 (see my Creation and Covenant)


II. Presence of God in Period of The Patriarchs: 12:Iff. Abraham - Isaac - Jacob - Israel


A. Nomads - semi-nomads - meet God at place of their tents - Haran - N. Mesopotamia;

promised land entered by north road - Damascus.


B. Erect a stele or altar - call upon God and offer sacrifice


C. Loyalty towards places - Shechem, (Sichem), Bethel, Beersheeba, (Bersabee).


     1.  First appearance of, or encounter with, God took place at Shechem at the oak of more -

Gen. 12: 6-7; 8; 13:4; 13:13; 21: 32-33,

2.  Abraham’s God is El. El Shadaai “God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob”. God who lives

and acts via intervening decisively in history in the life of Abraham and his heritage.

3.  So far God does not dwell among men. Has not yet established his dwelling-place on

earth. He is in heaven - Transcendence!

4.  Most-High God invoked by Melchizedeck - 14: 18-20 - He only “appears” on earth; He

does not dwell on earth.

5.  Yahweh intervenes in a vision and makes double promise; (a) Inheritance and (b) Heir -

chp. 15.

6.  Oak of Mambre, Yahweh shows Himself in human form. One of 3 men to whom Abraham

offers hospitality. God is a passing guest - Gen. 18.


D. Jacob - Gen. 25 - 46: 1 - At Beersheeba Yahweh had appeared to Isaac in order to renew the

promise - 26: 23-25.


1.  Jacob at Shechem - back from Padden-Aram with Lia (Leah) and Rachel and flocks.

2.  Buys land - pitches tent - erects an alter which he calls - El, the God of Israel - 33: 18-20. Abraham, breeder of small livestock, required a minimum of grazing land and water, no more than 250 in of rain per year. Haran, road from, to Damascus. Abraham stopped at Shechem, Bethel, Beersheeba Hebron, which are in a zone where the rainfall is from 250-500 mnv R. DeVaux, RB 1949, p. 5.

3.  Jacob meets God above all at Bethel - 28: 10-22; 31: 13; 35: 1.

4.  Two characteristics of His presence: Transcendence and communication, or proximity.

5.  Between first and second appearances to Jacob is the 20 yrs. flight from Esau. Jacob becomes Israel at ford of Jabok -32: 23-31. Point of re-entering Promised Land. Theme of God as testing those who are near to Him constantly occurs in Scriptures.

E.  Presence of God at Time of Exodus and Moses Life Time


     1.  God’s Dwelling-place, i.e., Tabernacle, permanent presence of the cloud.

2.  Exclusive service of Levites.

3.  Moses1 revelation and Sinaitic covenant. (Discourse analysis and unity-continuity- of

Abrahamic covenant and Sinaitic covenant.)

4.  God’s presence - Sinai and the Desert: (Burning Bush and Giving   of Law) - Ex. 33: 7-11;

Nu. 11: 16-30; 12: 1-10.

5.  Presence - Ex. 3: 12; 33: 14; 34: 9; Lev. 26: 11-12; Nu. 35: 34.

6.  Promise of Lasting-Dwelling of God among His people “the dwelling place” - makhon leshwtekha - only here and I Chr. 8: 13; 30, 39, 43 - Prayer of Solomon at the dedication of the Temple. Note presence and effects here and presence of HS in NT, e.g. Guidance - Nu. 9: 15; Indwelling - here and NT; Baptism - I Cor. 10: 2; Transformation of face of Moses in the presence of the Glory of God - Ex 34: 39 - II Cor 3: 7 - 4:6; Glory of God triumphed over Moses and Israel - Nu 20: 7-13 at waters of rebellion; Jesus’ triumph over the world - Jn. 16: 8-11 (see Oepke, article, Cloud - nepfrele TDNT)

7.  The Cloud - Encounter - Ex. 13: 21; Nu.12: 5; 14: 4, Deut. 31:15; Ex 40: 36-38. Temple both succeeds and transcends Moses. Cloud is always linked to a manifestation of God (A. Feuillet, “Le Fils del1 homme de Daniel et la tradition biblique,” Revue Biblique, 1953, pp. 170-202, esp. 187-88.

8.  The Glory - closely allied to the cloud - Ex. 16:10, 33: 12-23, 40: 34; Deut 5: 23; Ex. 19: 16; Lev. 9: 23-24; Nu. 14:10. Yahweh’s Kabod makes His transcendent Majesty and His Presence visible to me - Ex. 24: 15-17-29: 42; Nu. 14:10, 21 (Heb. Kabod; Gk. doxa; Aramaic or Michnaic Hebrew - shekinah). LXX translates the Hebrew verb shakan - to dwell by kataske-noun; noun, skene. Note, John 1: 14 - eskenosen; and that Jesus is the true Temple - 2: 19. See Kittel article doxa - TDNT/DNTT II, pp. 237-41; E. Stein, Per Begriff KeBod Jahweh. 1939; and G. R. Berry, “The Glory of Jahweh and the Temple” Journal of Biblical Literature, 1937, pp. 115-17. (Ex. 25: 8, 29: 45, Lev. 26: 11-12).

9.  The Tent of Meeting - ‘ohel Moed’_ - Ex. 33: 7f. (LXX translates skene tou marturion -

i.e., tent of witnesses - 156 times - Hatch-Redpath, LXX moed means a fixed time, hence

rendezvous - Hos. 12:10.

10.  Dwelling place - mishkan, rt. shakan, to dwell. Ex. 26; 36:8f. 40: 2, 3, 6.

11.  Ark - Tent, Tabernacle -of the Testimony (Heb. vb. ‘ud - to express a wish, e.g. a witness is a person who expresses a wish. The Cloud, like the manna, ceased to exist when the Israelites reached the frontiers of the Promised Land. The Presence continued in the ark and later in the Temple which directly succeeded the tabernacle of the desert - Ex. 25: 9, 40;: 26: 30; Acts 7:44; Heb. 8. Problem of God’s “Local Presence.”(Ez. 9:3; 10: 18; Ex. 20: 4; Deut 5: 8-10; II Kgs. 7: 5-7) Nathan - God dwells, not in one particular place, even a Temple, but among His people. (J. Phythian-Adams, The People and The Presence (London 1942, pp. 12-17). Presence does not imply any particular place or preference, “indwelling presupposes a choice of a place in which to remain” (M. J. Lagrange, Le judaisme avant Jesus-Christ (Paris, 1931, p. 446).




III. Yahweh’s Presence During Period of David and Solomon: ca. 10th-9th Century


The ark was at Bethel - Judges 20:27 during the time of the Judges. Received little attention - Judges; I Kgs 9: 3; II Kgs. 7:2.


A. Prophecy of Nathan and Building The Temple (Israel- J. L. Leuba, “Le dualisme Israel - Juda: Expose d’histoire et de Theologie,” Verbum Cero, 1947, pp. 172-89; M. Noth’s, History; Bright’s History; J. Pedersen, Israel. Vol II (IE-IV), p. 524ff; LaSar’s, Israel, Eerdmans:1976; Israel article, Kittel, TDNT).


B. Problem of Northern recognition of David’s Kingship - I Kgs. 2: 12- 32; 3: 1; II Kgs. 5: 1-3.


C. David’s capture of Salem of The Jebusites (Ps. 68; Eph. 4: 6ff). Jerusalem -‘The City of

David;” The City of The Great King - OT/NT.


D. Political Theology - Moving Ark to Jerusalem (Gen. 14: 17-20; Melchizedek, “King of Salem”; Jerusalem - Mt on which Abraham sought to sacrifice Isaac - L. H. Vincent, “Abraham a Jerusalem” Revue Biblique. 1951; pp. 366-71.


E   Jerusalem - Throne of Yahweh - Jer. 3:17; Yahweh - is - there, Ez. 48: 35; City of Yahweh,

Zion dear to the Holy One of Israel -Isa. 60: 14.


F.  Prophecy of Nathan and Messianism that is linked with the person of David.


1.  Perpetuity promised to David’s line is inseparable from the transfer of the ark to Jerusalem, which now becomes God’s dwelling place (II Kings 7).

2.  Davidic Line and Punishment for Sin; Direction and Intention of Nathan’s Prophecy Psalm 88.131). (M. Simon, “La prophetic de Nathan et le Temple,” Revue d Histoire et Philosopfaie religion, 1952; pp. 41-48; H. Van den Bussche, “Le texte de la prophetic de Nathan sur ladynastic davidique,” Eph Theo Louvain. 1948, pp. 354-98; A.M. B’runet, “Le Chroniste et ses sources” Revue Biblique. 1953, pp. 431-503; J.L. McKenzie, “The Dynastic Oracle (II Samuel 7) Theological Studies. 1947, pp. 187-218.

3.  Davidic Line and Subsequent Royal Messianism (Isa 11.1; Jer 23.5; 33.15; Ezek 34.23; Ps 88.131; II Kgs 23.5) (Royal House (Hebrew bait: Greek oikos. i.e., fixed house or abode. Tent corresponds to yericah. goat’s hair as used by Bedouins. (The “for me to dwell in” corresponds to leshioti. an infinitive derived from the verb iashav).

4.  Shift from ‘house’ to live in to lineage (Gen 7.1; Ex 1.21; Num 18.1; I Kgs 3.12-14; Jer 12.25;Ruth 4.11; Hos 8.1; Jer 12.7). Damascus Document III, 19 (Jer and Ezekiel) NT Matt 10.6,12,13,25; Heb 3.5,6).


A.   Place of the Temple is secondary. God’s dwelling place among His people is vital for understanding the error of Pre-Millennialism-Dispensationalism regarding Zech 9-14 and the Temple in the Millennial Kingdom. The Temple in the NT is God’s presence and/or indwelling .David was a prophet, as was Nathan, while Solomon was a wise man and had no recognized prophet of his own.

B.   Nathan’s prophecy was a Promise of David’s presence, prosperity and perpetuity. A covenant was concluded between Yahweh and David (II Kgs. 23.5; Ps. 17.51; Isa. 16.5; 37.35; Ps 131, 88; Jer 33.21,26; Isa 55.3 (Acts 13.34); David’s covenant re-affirms both the Abrahamic and Mosaic covenants.


C.   The King was the supreme Moshiah, “The Anointed One” (Ps 2 (see M.J. Lagrange,Le Messianisme chez les Juifs. Paris, 1909; Descamps, Giblet and Rigaux, L’attente du Messie (Paris, 1954). Davidic royal line would ultimately deliver “Emmanuel” (Isa 9.5,6; 11.1-5; Micah 4.7,8; 5.1-4;Lk 1.32,33). Note that in the time of Micah, the king of Judah had been humbled by Sennacherib (II Chron 18.14-16; Ps. 131). For Isaiah’s prophecy in 7.14 see my essay in the College Press reprint of B.B. Warfield’s The Lord of Glory; W. Vischer, “La prophetic d’ Emmanuel et la fete royale de Sion”, Etudes Theology et religion. 1954, pp. 55-97; Compare II Kings 7. 9- “to be with”; II Kgs. 7: 16 - Isa. 9: 5, 6; Ps. 2: 9 -J. Coppens, “La prophetic de la CAlmah,” Eph. Theol. Lou vain, 1952, pp. 648-78.

D.   Royal Messianism and David’s House in Jeremiah (Jer. 21: llff; 23:1-8; 33:15; Zech 3: 8; 6: 12; Isa. 4: 2 seed or germ of David. From this time forward ‘seed’ becomes a technical term for The Messiah, the Mediator of salvation - Jer. 17:25, 30; 30:9, where perspective is eschatological. Restoration prophesied refers to Nathan’s promise; prophetic consciousness of “Jerusalem will be called the throne of Yahweh. “

E.   Ezekiel and The Temple - God as Shepherd of His people - 34:11-31; 40; 48; “None shall doubt that I, the Lord their God, am at their side” - compare with 34:23; 37: 24, 25 - Servant David shall provide a single shepherd. The Davidic royal messianism remained a live theme even after destruction of the Davidical monarchy. Haggai 2: 20-23; Zech. 3:6-10; 6:11-14; compare with II Kgs. 6-7; Rev. 21.

F.   Messianic Meaning and the Prophecy of Daniel - 9:23-7; Acts 7: Iff - Daniel does not mention the Davidic lineage but he does God’s house and Jerusalem; Matt. 1:1; Rms 1:3; Lk. 1: 32, 33; 20: 41-44 - compare with II Kgs. 7. Here we note the uniting of two themes: The Presence of Yahweh and The Royal Power - II Kgs. 6-7; Ps. 131. In the future God Himself would fulfill the promise made to David by dwelling among and reigning over His people (re: The Kingdom of God, Presence of God, Presence of Jesus Christ via Incarnation. (J. de Fraine, L’aspect religieux de ea royaute’ Israelite, Rome, 1954 responds to Mowinckel’s En-Thronement Pss. thesis; A. Feuillet, “Les psaumes eschatologiques du Regne de Yahvew”, Nouvin Rev. Theol., 1951, pp. 244-60; 352-63.)

G.   Temple, Glory, Presence - each focus in Jesus of Nazareth - God’s way ends in Incarnation! (Jn. 1:1-18; 2:19-21; Col. 2:9; 2:19; 1:18; Eph. 1:23; 4:12; I Pet. 2: 5; see Beasley-Murrey’s Jesus and The Kingdom of God (Eerdmans, 1986).


IV. Presence of God in The Prophets (See my Sin and Salvation)


Prophetic opposition between Priesthood and Prophetic office? Were they hostile to the Temple, Priesthood and Public Worship? Every Prophet considers both The Temple and Zion as the dwelling place of God (Pedersen, Israel. Vol. II (III-IV) pp.115-17; 559). Amos 1:2; 7: 10; Isa. 6:21f; Ez. 43:6; Hos. 9:7-8; Mic. 4:1 ; Haggai 2:6-9; Joel 3; 17, 21; Jer. 20:1-3; Jer. 3:14-17.


A. Prophetic Criticism of Practice of Sacrifice-Conversion (Amos 5: 21-27; Hos. 8:13; Isa. 1:10; 2:9-19; 29:13 - Matt. 15:7-8; Mic. 6:6-8; Jer. 4:20; Zech 7:5; Hesed, misphat, sedhaka - Hos. 6:6; Amos 5:24; Mic 6:6-8; Ps. 49:19. “Seek Yahweh and you shall live” - Am. 5:46, 6, 14; Hos. 10:12; Isa. 55:6; Ps. 104).


B. Departure of Yahweh’s Glory - Ez. 10-11 (H. G; May, “The Departure of The Glory of Yahweh”, JBL, 1937, pp. 309-21) - Ez. (24: 21; 40-48; 43; Isa. 52: 7f;) and Jeremiah prophesies the profanation of both the city and the Temple - Ps. 84; Isa. 25:4; 57:15; 66:1-2; Zech. 2:14-17; 8: 20-23; 9-14; Jer. 23: 23-24.


V. Temple - Presence - Jewish Devotional Life (Temple after Exile -Zerubabel and Herod)


A. Rebuilding of Temple started ca. 536 BC - finished Feb/March 515 BC - Hag. 2:23; Zech 6:12f; Neh 8:1, 9; 12:36


1.  Heb. Bait - Neh 6:10; 10:33, 35, 36, 39, 40; Hekal - Neh. 6:10; Ez (chps 40-48) Bait occurs ca 50 times; Hekal 6 times. Isa. 55-66 - Bait 6 times; Hekal - 1. Zech 1: 14 L. H. Vincent. Jerusalem de 1’Ancien Testament, I-II, Paris,1956.

2.  Problem of Samaritans.

3.  Judaism - lasted down to NT period, ca 70AD and destruction of Jewish state and The Temple, Sacrifice, Priesthood, etc.

4.  Five centuries characterized by three great facts: (a) Violation of Temple during attempt to impose Hellenization; (b) Persecution followed under Antiochus Epihanius; and (c) Improvements due to Herod the Great.

5.  On Dec. 8, 167 BC, King Antiochus set up an idol to desecrate God’s altar (I Mace. 1: 57; Dan. 9: 27; 11: 31; 12: 11; II Mace. 6:2; Matt. 24:15; Mk. 13:14). Antiochus’ men erected a statue of Jupiter Olympius and then celebrated the feast of the sun (Dec. 25) by offering sacrifices to the god.

6.  On Dec. 25, 164, exactly three years after sacrilegious sacrifices pagan worship, the Temple was purified and rededicated (I Mace. 4:36-59; II Mace.1:8-10; 2:16-19; 10:1-8); Read John 2: 20; 10: 2Z; Lk. 2: 20 - Feast of Dedication - (Encaeniae, i.e., renewal or dedicatory festival. (Compare Josephus, Antiq XIV, XI and Mishnah on account of reconstruction. L. H. Vincent, “Le temple herodien d’apres la Micnah”, Revue Biblique, 1954, pp. 5-35; 398-418; A. Parrot, Le Temple de Jerusalem, Paris, 1954; A. Causse, “La vision de la nouvelle Jerusalem1’ (Esaie L,X) et la signification sociologique des assemblies de fetes et des pelerinages dans I’Orient’semitique”, in Melanges syriens offerts a’ M. R. Dussaud, Paris, 1939, pp. 739-50; “De la Jerusalem terrestre a la Jerusalem celeste,” Revue Hist. Hist. Philos. relicr, 1947, pp. 12-36; and A. Gelin, “Jerusalem dans le dessein de Dieu”, Vie Spirit, 1952, pp. 353-66 - April issue totally devoted to theme of heavenly Jerusalem. Read Pss. 119-120). Mont Smith, Covenant (College Press).

7.  Jewish Devotion to The Temple

a.  Two fundamental dogmas of Judaism: Oneness and absoluteness of God and His choice of Israel, i.e., Election-Covenant. The Jerusalem and Temple were the places where Yahweh and His people met in most complete and intimate communion.

b.   Yahweh dwells in Zion - Ps. 67; 75; 77; 121; 131; 134. Mystical view of Jerusalem from time of David-“the City of David”; Ez. “The Lord is there; such is the name by which the city will be known ever after” 48:35; Rev. 21 - Messianic and eschatological perspective.

c.   Progressive legalism - because increasingly strict and increasingly narrow. Reed O. Procksch - hagios -TDNT I. pp 88-97; Lev 11:44; 20: 7-8; Ez 44: 19; 46: 20; Ex. 29: 37; Matt. 23: 16-22.

d.  From Isaiah, Ez; et al. throughout NT, Jesus, Paul, Revelation, the Temple is accompanied by insistence on purity, i.e., holiness.

e.  Law and public worship were the two poles, both the national level, of separatist Israel. Compare with Qumran community.

f.   Great Feasts - Tabernacle, Passover, Pentecost. Read Songs of Ascents Pss 119-34 as they express feelings of Pilgrims as they came nearer to The City and The Temple. Ps. 117 for feast of Tabernacles; Pss 65; 13; 95: 8-9 for sacrifices faithfully offered in The Temple. (J. Comblin, “La liturgie de la Nouvelle Jerusalem,” (Apoc 21:1-22:5), Eph Theol Lovan, ‘53, pp. 5-40; J. Quasten, “The Conflict of Early Christianity with the Jewish Temple Worship”, Theological Studies, 1941, pp. 481-7; Col. 3:16; Eph. 5:19.

g.   Spiritualization of The Concept of Worship - (not to be reduced to spiritual, ethical, or metaphorical; A Causse, Les pauvres d’ Israel, Strasbourg, 1922; A. Gelin, Les pauvres de Yahvew, Paris, 1953.

h.   Ideologies of The Temple - concept of Yahweh1 s Presence and cosmic significance attributed to The Temple (J. Abelsan, The Immanence of God in Rabbinical Literature, London: 1943; history of religion so-called parallels - Pedersen, Israel, II (IH-IV), p. 651. Jer. 23:23; Ps.138; Amos 9:6; Ex 3:6; 20:19; 33:20; Isa. 6:5; Deut. 5:23-26.

i.   Transcendence of God - and the name Yahweh (On the substitutes for sacred name among the Jews see Bonsirven, Vol. I, pp 128ff, on theology of the name - W. Eichrodt, Theology of the OT, pp 15-18, slight difference between pagination of German and ET.

j.   Linking Presence and Transcendence - Shekinah (Aramaic or Mishnaic Hebrew derive from Hebrew vb. shaken, dwelling rather than presence. God lives in the Temple or place of skehinah. Read Bonsirven, p. Ill; Moore, H.T.R., 1922, pp. 41-85; Lagrange, Judaisme, p. 451.

k.   Cosmic Significance of The Temple (J. Danielou, “Le symbolisme cosmique du Temple de Jerusalem, “ Symbolisme cosmique et Monuments religieux,” 1953, pp. 61-64; L. H. Vincent, “L ‘autel des holocaustes et le caractere du temple d1 Ezechiel,” Melanges P. Peeters, 1949, pp. 7-20.


VI. Temple - Presence of God in NT Period


A. Vocabulary used to describe The Temple - (Read Schrenk, art. naos, TDNT, IV, esp. pp. 884-95; oikos, V, pp. 126-36; R. Jouon, “Les mots employes pour designer ‘le temple’ dans ’A.T. le N. T. , et. Josephe”, Rech Sci relig.1935, pp. 329-43; see Hatch-Redpath, Concordance for various uses. NT never uses hagiamos frequently used in LXX as trans of miqdas, i. e. Temple, or sanctuary. NT is always in line with OT or Jewish usage - eg. Matt. 24:15; Jn. 11:48; Acts 6:13, 14; 7:7; 21:28.


1.  To hieron (Temple as a whole) oikos (Lk. 11:51) naos (vestibule, Holy Place, Holy of Holies, Matt. 27:5) temenos.

2.  Court of women - Mk. 12:41; Lk. 21:1; Jn. 8:20.

3.  Court of Israel - Lk. 24:53; Acts 2:46; 3:1; 22:17.

4.  Naos - holy temple is built up of the faithful.

5.  Oikos - I Pet 2:4-10 House of God, i.e., local or whole Church as God’s family- economia- Heb 3:6;  10:21; I Timothy 3:15; I Pet. 4:17

6.  hagiaoma never used in NT realizing that Temple of Jerusalem was no longer a valid way to reach God. Old covenant was superseded and replaced by worship in Spirit and in Truth through Yahweh Incarnate.


VII.   Jesus And The Temple


A. Jesus’ devotion to the Temple - Lk. 2:41-50


1.  His Father’s House - Jn 2:16

2.  House of God - Matt 12:4; Lk 6:4; Matt 23:21.

3.  City of the Great King - Matt. 5:35; Ps. 47:3.

4.  Jesus purifies The Temple out of zeal for the house of God - Jn. 2:17. Jesus’ attitude toward the Temple is the same as toward The Law - Matt 5: 17 - the Word and the Presence stood or fell together - Lk. 17:14; Matt 8:4; 23:3, 16-22; Mk.10:16.

5.  Jesus, Taxes for Temple upkeep - Matt.16:16-18; 17:24-26; Jos. Antiq., 18, 312. Church is

a stranger to the Temple; Christ supercedes the Temple; Holy Spirit and God’s presence.

6.  Commission in Galilee - far from Jerusalem arid Temple -Matt 28: 19-20.

7.  Religious System of The Temple is at an end and is replaced by Himself in person.

a.  Synoptics - To hieron - place where men meet God.

b.  John - naos - place where God dwells

c.  Mai. 3:1-5 - prophecy of The Day of Yahweh -

1. Eschatology and Messianic prophecy fulfilled in person of John the Baptist and in

Jesus of Nazareth -Matt 11:10; Lk. 7:27; Mk. 9:12.

2.  Prophecy applied to John the Baptist and identifies Jesus with Yahweh Himself, or

with His face.

3.  Jesus comes to Temple to purify it and to fulfill its destiny.

4.   Messianic times - Temple is house of prayer for all the nations. Jesus is brought to Temple - once -Mary’s purification, Lk. 2:22-39; He comes to Temple to proclaim and exercises Messianic power. His purification of Temple - Matt.12:6; I Pet 2:5; Matt. 23:19; E. G. Selwyn, First Epistle of Peter reprinted p. 163.

5.   First Jesus is redeemed according to the Law of Moses - Num 18: 15; Lev. 12: 2-5; 27: 6; Ex. 11: 4ff. Yet He Himself the go’el, i.e. redeemer, not only of Israel, but of the whole world. He is presented in Temple - Matt 12: 6; it is He who sanctifies the Temple and every offering men can make to God.

6.   Jesus is welcomed in the Temple by two representatives of the “Poor of the House of Israel” (A Gelin, Les pauvres de Yahve1 (Paris, 1954) completely at variance with contemporary neo-Marxists use of poor as eg. of need for economic justice), who were awaiting the comforter of their nation. Simeon and Anna the prophetess, two old people, for the former covenant has grown old and is nearing the end of its life. Simeon, the prophet, recognizes Jesus as destined to be “a sign which men will refuse to recognize” - Lk 2: 34; compare with 20:18.

7.   The whole of Israel’s expectation is summed up in the persons of Simeon and Anna. Read carefully Lk 1-2; Also F. M. Braum, “expulsion des vendeurs du Temple” Revue Biblique, 1929, pp.178-200.

8.   True universalism - From universalism and the Temple - linked by prophets - True universalism linked with work of Jesus - Commission Matt. 28:19f.

     a.  Destroy this Temple - naos - i.e. sanctuary in which Yahweh dwells, in particular

          the Holy of Holies.

     b.  Stephen’s speech - Acts 7: Iff.

     c.  Paul - Acts 17: 34; Col. 2:11; Eph. 2:11.

     d.  Hebrews 9:11, 24; cheiropoietos and achei-ropoietos - used in answer to Jews

          who reproached Christians for not having any Temple or sacrifices. Note

          complete fulfillment in Jesus - of both and further NT modification of these

          themes, esp. Hebrews.

9.   True Sanctuary is the Body of Christ

     a.  Jn. 2: 21 - Temple of His Body; Matt 18: 20 -Christ and the Shekinah.

     b.  Transfiguration - Matt 17:1-8; Mk. 8:2-8; Lk. 9:28-34; compare with Paul’s

          theology of transformation; H. Riesenfeld, “Jesus transfiguration. L’arriere -

          plan du recit evangelique de la transfiguration de Notre - Seigneur” ed. by J.

          Frid-richsen, Copenhagen, 1947, esp. pp. 130 ff.

     c.  Jesus and the Vineyard - Hos. 10:1; Isa. 5:1-7; 27:2-5; Jer. 2:21f; Ez.15:1; 19:lff;

          Ps. 79:9f; Jn 15:If. - Symbol well known from Prophets. In Herodian temple a

          golden vine hung from the rafters of the vestibule. It symbolized Israel in the very

          place where Israel came into the presence of God. “I am the vine, you are its

          branches” Jn 15:1, 5.

     d.  Jesus as The Lamb - Zech 13:1; Jn 1:35

     e.  Jesus, True Sanctuary - Cross - Resurrection -Mk 13 and Lk 25 (A. Feuillet,

          “Le discours de Jesus sur la ruine du Temple,” Revue Biblique, 1948, pp. 481-

          502; 1949, pp. 61-92 - John 2:21-uses egero meaning ‘to rise again”, but also to

          erect, eg, a building. Compare Mk. 13:2 -anastesetai read Mk.13:1-37; Lk 21:5-

          36; Matt. 24:1-44.

     f.  Destruction of Temple and New Presence via Resurrection, e.g. Dwelling and

          Indwelling -Jn 1:1-18.

     g.  Temple to Soma - Col. 1:22; I Pet. 2:24; Heb.10:10; II Cor. 5:1.

     h.  Soma - Presence - Atonement - Jn 5:19f; 8:28, 29; 10:17-18; 17:4; 18:11; Isa. 6:If;


          (1) Cross - Holy of Holies - High Priest - atonement once-for-all.

          (2) Hebrew 9:llf; 10:19-20; 1:104

          (3) Jn. 3:13

     i.  Resurrection - Remnant - True Israel (Ez 37:23-28; Hag 2:7-9; M. Simon,Verus

          Israel, Paris, 1948).

     j.  Spiritual Worship - Spiritual Temple - Holy Spirit




VIII. Christians (Church) as Spiritual Temples (See my People of God)


A. Christ as Temple - Gospels


B. Church as Temple - Epistles - Col. 2:9; Eph 2:20-22; I Pet 2:4-8.


C. Paul’s Theology is dominated by the application to Christ of a vast of OT passages which express the saving, purifying and vivifying effects of Yahweh’s Presence splendidly detailed in Phythian-Adams, The People and The Presence, esp. pp.169-202.


D. After Pentecost The Church is the Temple, the community of the faithful.


E.  Self-Evident fact - I Cor 3:16; 6:19; Rev. 21:22. Mystery of His Presence is not confined to His own person, but worked out in us.


F.  Paul-Temple-Body: Church as Soma and Individual Christians


     1.  I Cor 3:16 - God’s naos

     2.  I Cor 6:19 - Holy Spirit

     3.  Eph 2:21, 22 - union with Christ; presence of the Spirit

     4.  Rom 12:Iff; Rom 8:11

     5.  II Cor 5:Iff


G. Christian Community as Temple of God


     1.  I Cor 3:10, 16

     2.  II Cor 6:16

     3.  Eph 2:14-22 - vs. 18 oikeioi Tou theou, vs. 20, epoikodome-thentes, oikokome, vs 22, eis

          nao.n hagion-eis katoiketerion tou theou

     4.  Isa 28


H. Building Up the Community II Cor 3 2. Eph 2:21; 4:11-17 - Building in course of erection


     Four essential characteristics of these images:


          a.  Image relative to somebody and to one person

          b.  Collective, made up of many

          c.  Dynamic, and implies growth and accomplishment

          d.  Each one has a function


     One another - I Thess 5:11; I Cor 8:1; 14:12; Rom 14:19; 15:2; I Pet 2:5; Jude 20.

     Discipleship - Service - Beyer, TDNT, 2, pp. 81-83.

I.   Gradual Process of Achievement: Eph 2:20f; II Cor 3:11


     1.  epoikodomethentes - being built, on the foundation - Eph 2:20;

     2.  sunoikodomeisthe - you are built into the building - 2: 22

     3.  oikodome, fabric - 2:21

     4.  auxei eis-naon hagion-grows into a holy temple 2:21; auxesomen eis, to grow up into 4:15.

     5.  eis...with a view to, towards, in order to become - 2:21; 2:22; 4:12, 13, 15.


J.  Foundation -I Cor 3:11 (foundation- themelios); II Cor 11:4; Gal 1:6-9; Rev. 1; 8; 21:6; 22:13


     1.  Eph 2:20f apostles and prophets - chief corner-stone -akrogohiaios

     2.  Eph 4: 10

     3.  Col 2:7 (Read Schmidt, art. themelios TDNT, III, pp.792-93; PP. 63 ff. Jeremias article

          kephale, TDNT, I, also lithps article; compare with Cullmann’s Peter) Church as pillar -

          foundation of the Truth - I Tim 3:5, 15.


K. People of God as House of God - Heb 3:3-6


     1.  Theology of Hebrews

          a.  True Priesthood;

          b.  True Sanctuary and

          c.  True Sacrifice (only ta hegia, never to hieron, naos, or skene)

     2.  Each theme fulfilled in Jesus Christ

     3.  Priesthood of all believers is taught in Hebrews by use of liturgical verb “to come near” -

          eiserchesthai - 3:12; 7:19,20; 9, 12, 24 (See Spicq, E-H, p. 281).


L.  First Peter and The Community as Temple


     1.  I Pet 2:4 “draw near” see above

     2.  I Pet 2:4 use of Isa 8:14; 28:16; Ps.117:21;

     3.  Chosen Race, Royal Priesthood, Holy Nation, a People for God -Isa 43:20-21; Mai 3:17;

          Ex.19:5-6; Hos.1:6-9; 2:23-24.

     4.  Newly baptized - invited to draw near -2:2

     5.  Laymen - entire people of God (compare with contemporary meaning)

M. Spiritual and Visible (vs. Invisible)


     1.  Heresy of an invisible church

     2.  Visible presence of God - Col. 2:9


N. Eschatological Temple in The Revelation (See my Consummation of Creation)


     1.  skehe and naos used in Rev.

     2.  New Jerusalem and Temple - chp 21:22

     3.  New Temple - Presence - chp 22

     4.  God’s Presence during history of the World

     5.  Blasphemy against dwelling place - 13:6 (compare adversary II Thess. 2:4)

     6.  Church under image of Temple - 11:1

     7.  Temple of God is The Church - 3:12; 11:1; 14:1-5

     8.  Heavenly Temple and its Liturgy - modeled on Jerusalem Temple

     9.  Cosmic-Earthly struggle unfolds between God’s Reign and His adversary.

     10. Dwelling - 21:3

     11. Adoption - 21:7; II Kgs. 7:14 - Nathan’s Prophecy

     12. Exodus recapitulated - Lamb - slain - (arnion and pais -Suffering Servant as risen,

          victorious and reigning

     13. Earthly history of Church and world - 12: 22; 14:13; 15:5-8;16:1; 19:1-3.

     14. Presence and God’s Glory - 20:11; 21:1, 22. “I saw no temple in it; its temple is the Lord

          God almighty, its temple is The Lamb” - vs. 22; Isa. 60:3; 22:1

     15. Fulfillment - Maranatha, as in Prison Epistles, so the Revelation - Christ is the source of a

new creation - 21:1, 5; 22:1, 2; Isa. 60-66. Cosmic redemption is fulfilled in concrete                        history by the incarnate Word, Cross, Resurrection.

     16. Providence and Presence “Its Temple is The Lamb” 21:22


See the following texts: Bertil Gartner, The Temple and The Community In Qumran and the New Testament (Cambridge University Press, 1965); esp. chapter IV, “Temple Symbolism in the NT”, p. 47ff.; I. Buse, ‘The Cleansing of the Temple in the Synoptics and in John’, E.T. LXX (1958-9), 22-4; J. W. Doeve, ‘Purification du Temple et dessechement du figuier. Sur la structure du 21 erne chapitre de Matthieu et parallels’, N.T.S. I (1954-5), 297-308; M. Simon, ‘Retour du Christ et reconstruction du Temple dans la pensee chretienne primitive’, in Melanges M. Goeuel (Neuchatel-Paris.1950), pp. 247-57; Verus Israel. Etude sur les relations entre Chretiens et uifs dans empire romain (Paris, 1948); D. Guthrie, N. T. Theology (Inter-Varsity), 1981, esp. ‘The Mission of Christ.1 pp. 408ff; A. H. Lewis, The Dark Side of The Millennium (Baker, 1980); K. A. Strand, Interpreting the Book of Revelation (Hermeneutical Guidelines with Brief Introduction to Literary Analysis (2nd ed., Ann Arbor Pub., 1979); A. A. Hoekema, The Bible and The Future (Eerdmans. 1979); J. D. Strauss. Consummation of Creation; Historiography of Theories of History; Historiography of The Physical Sciences; The Lord of The Future; The Seer, the Saviour, and The Saved (The College Press, 1984); C. E. B. Cranfield, Epistle to the Romans. Vols I-II (Attic Press, Greenwood, SC) ICC - Vol I 1980 with corrections, Vol II 1979.



(Based on Volumes 1-23 of New Testament Abstracts; also Wagner’s Bibliography)


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