What questions faced The Church at her Turning Points? Who asked the questions? Who/How addressed? Two models of Education-- Jewish and Hellenistic. The following 7 statements are from James Orr.*


1. Second Century: Age of Apologetics

2. Third Century/Fourth Century - Theological controversy, doctrine of God.

3. Fifth Century: Anthropological controversy

4. Fifth to Seventh Centuries: Christological controversies (the person of Christ - human and divine)

5. Eleventh to Sixteenth Centuries: Soteriological controversies

6. Sixteenth Century: Reformation/Atonement - application of Redemption

7. Seventeenth/Eighteenth/Nineteenth Centuries (Enlightenment) - Scientific, French, American Revolutions            

                                                                                                                                  *(James Orr, The Progress of Dogma, 1897)


Modern/Postmodern Period


1. Hume’s attack on miracles and the supernatural

2. Kant’s “Copernican Revolution”

3. Biblical criticism

4. Sociology of Knowledge

5. Restoration Heritage context

6. Conflict between Positivism, Physical Sciences and Historicism and the Social Sciences

7. Hermeneutical Revolution (Dilthey - cultural relativism); D.F. Strauss and Classical Liberalism; deconstruction of Christian doctrine to express Relevance to the new audience shaped by Scientific Revolution)

8. Technological Revolution: Production/Distribution; Cost/Profit (Capitalism)

9. Revolutionary views of Freedom & Tolerance; Democratic Capitalism-accumulation of wealth)

10. Impact of Copernicus, Darwin (the source of Dewey’s    pragmatism and his philosophy of education), Marx, Freud on the Christian Faith


Twentieth Century: Scientific Revolution from Newton

to Einstein to Mach, Heisenberg


1. Crick and the Gene Code

2. Cybernetic Revolution

3. Media

4. Education - Character/Career (Outcome Based Education/Goals 2000) (Skinner’s Operant

       Conditioning as foundation)

5. Neurological/Biological Revolution (Demise of the Person-- mind and body)

6. Jesus Under Fire (The Jesus Seminar) Computer Analogue

7. Christian Missions/Evangelism’s Beyond Mere Diversity

8. “In no other name” (Acts 10) is rejected by multicultural pluralism! What/Who sets the agenda?

Three Quests: (1) Transcendence; (2) Community; (3)Significance                                                        JDS